2009 Annual Science Report
VPL at University of Washington Reporting | JUL 2008 – AUG 2009
The Virtual Planetary Laboratory
The Virtual Planetary Laboratory is an interdisciplinary research effort focused on answering a single key question in astrobiology: If we were to find a terrestrial planet orbiting a distant star, how would we go about recognizing signs of habitability and life on this planet?
This question is relevant to Astrobiology Roadmap Goals 1 and 7, and specifically Objectives 1.1 (Formation and Evolution of Habitable Planets), 1.2 (Indirect and Direct Observations of Extrasolar Habitable Planets) and 7.2 (Biosignatures to be Sought in Nearby Planetary Systems). This research provides a scientific foundation for interpretation of Kepler results, and for NASA’s Terrestrial Planet Finder mission concept.
While this science focus was developed prior to the detection of extrasolar terrestrial planets, subsequent observations have brought us much closer to this goal. Radial velocity surveys, initially only sensitive to planets larger than ... Continue reading.
NAI, ASTEP, ASTID, Exobiology
TEAM Active Dates:11/2007 - 10/2012 CAN 4
Members:64 (See All)
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Detectability of Biosignatures
This goal of this project is to study our ability to remotely detect life on planets. Primarily, this applies to extrasolar planets – those that exist outside our solar system. The way we will search for life on these planets is by attempting to detect gases produced by life. For example, we could detect the life on modern-day Earth if we detected gases the presence of molecular oxygen (O2, the gas we breathe that is produced by plants and bacteria) and methane (CH4, which is produced by bacteria). These two gases can co-exist only with production rates so high that they are unsustainable without the presence of life on the planet.ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 1.1 1.2 4.1 6.2
Understanding the Early Mars Environment
The surface of Mars today is a cold dry desert on which liquid water cannot exist. Evidence from rovers and orbiters indicate that liquid water may have existed on the surface of Mars in the distant past. This project aims to understand how it could have been warm enough for liquid water by creating computer models of the ancient Mars surface, atmosphere, and climate, and comparing the results with the available data. In a nutshell, we are trying to warm up a computer version of Mars, which is not as easy as it sounds.ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 1.1 2.1
Astronomical Observations of Planetary Atmospheres and Exoplanets
This task focuses on what we can learn about planets in our Solar System and exoplanets using astronomical remote-sensing techniques. These techniques include radial velocity, secondary eclipse and, for planets in our own Solar System, direct spectroscopy. These astronomical observations both tell us more about the universe, and allow us to test retrieval and observing techniques that may one day be used on extrasolar terrestrial planets.ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 1.2 2.2
Postdoctoral Fellow Report: Mark Claire
I am interested in how biological gases affect the atmosphere of Earth (and possibly other planets.) Specifically, I use computer models to investigate how biogenic sulfur gases might build up in a planetary atmosphere, and if this would lead to observable traces in Earth’s rock record or in the atmospheres of planets around other stars. I’m also working on how anaerobic oxidizers of methane affected the rise of oxygen on Earth, and if evolutionary changes in nitrogen-using bacteria may have changed global N2 levels and planetary climate.ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 1.1 1.2 4.1 7.2
Planetary Surface and Interior Models and SuperEarths
In this project, we model the processes that continually reshape the interiors and the surfaces of terrestrial (rocky) planets. The models we develop and use give us insight into how these processes (e.g. weathering, volcanism, and plate tectonics) affect a planet’s habitability as the planet evolves. In addition to Earth- and Mars-like planets, we now seek to model two sorts of planets not observed in our Solar System: 1) “super-Earths” (rocky planets up to 10 times as massive as Earth) and 2) planets so close to their star that the tides actually heat the interior of the planet.ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 1.1 1.2 4.1 5.2 6.1
VPL Databases, Model Interfaces and the Community Tool
The Virtual Planetary Laboratory develops modeling tools and provides a collaborative framework for scientists from many disciplines to coordinate research on the environments of extrasolar planets. As part of this framework, the VPL acts as a central repository for planetary models and the inputs required to generate those results. Developing a comprehensive storehouse of input data for computer simulations is key to successful collaboration and comparison of the models. As part of the on-going VPL Community Tools, we have are developing a comprehensive database of molecular, stellar, pigment, and mineral spectra useful in developing extrasolar planet climate models and interpreting the results of NASAs current and future planet-finding missions. The result, called the Virtual Planetary Spectral Library, will provide a common source of input data for modelers and a single source of comparison data for observers.ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 1.1 1.2
Hydrodynamic Escape From Planetary Atmospheres
We use computer models to simulate the behavior of the upper atmospheres of different planets (Earth, Venus, Mars, Earth-like exoplanets, etc.) during their early evolutionary stages. Young stars produce more flares and other stellar activity than older stars, and the young Sun emitted a greater amount of energetic photons than it does today, which heated the upper atmospheres of the planets. This atmospheric heating led to fast atmosphere escape, which probably controlled the atmospheric composition of early planets. The atmospheric composition on early Earth provides critical constraints on the origin and early evolution of life on this planet. The atmospheric composition of other planets provide important constraints on their habitability.ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 1.1 2.1 3.1
Stromatolites in the Desert: Analogs to Other Worlds
Cuatro Cienegas Basin, a desert oasis in the Chihuahua desert of central Mexico, provides a proxy for an earlier time in Earth’s history when microbes dominated the scenery. The basin hosts active, growing stomatolites, communities of microbes that are covered in carbonates, principally through the action of metabolic processes within the community. Researchers from several NAI teams are actively researching and creating experimental procedures to understand small scale and large scale evolution within these communities, using tools from biology, geology, and astronomy.ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 4.1 4.2 5.2 5.3 6.1 6.2
Thermodynamic Efficiency of Electron-Transfer Reactions in the Chlorophyll D-Containing Cyanobacterium, Acharyochloris Marina
Photosynthesis is the only known process that produces planetary-scale biosignatures – atmospheric oxygen and the color of photosynthetic pigments — and it is expected to be successful on habitable extrasolar planets as well, due to the ubiquity of starlight as an energy source. How might photosynthetic pigments adapt to alternative environments? Could oxygenic photosynthesis occur at much longer wavelengths than the red? This project is approaching these questions by studying a recently discovered cyanobacterium, Acaryochloris marina, which performs oxygenic photosynthesis in environments depleted in visible light but enriched in far-red/near-infrared light. A. marina is the only known organism to have chlorophyll d (Chl d) to use photons in the far-red and near-infrared, whereas all other oxygenic photosynthetic organisms use chlorophyll a (Chl a) to utilize red photons. Whether A. marina is operating more efficiently or less than Chl a-utilizing organisms will indicate what wavelengths are the ultimate limit for oxygenic photosynthesis. We have been conducting lab measurements of energy storage in whole A. marina cells using pulsed, time-resolved photoacoustics (PTRPA, or PA), a laser technique that allows us to control the wavelength, amount, and timing of energy received by a sample of cells.ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 3.2 4.2 5.1 5.3 6.2 7.2
The VPL Life Modules
The Life Modules of the VPL are concerned with the modeling of biosphere processes for coupling with the VPL’s atmospheric and planetary models. These coupled models enable simulation of the impact of biogenic gases on atmospheric composition, of biota on the surface energy balance, and of the detectability of these in planetary spectra. The Life Modules team has engaged in previous work coupling 1D models in the VPL’s suite of planetary models, and current work now focuses on biosphere models coupled to 3D general circulation models (GCMs). Current project areas are: 1) development of a model of land-based ecosystem dynamics suitable for coupling with GCMs and generalizable for alternative planetary parameters, and 2) coupling of an ocean biogeochemistry model to GCMs.ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 1.2 6.1 6.2 7.2
Limits of Habitability
The study of planetary habitability necessitates an interdisciplinary approach. The factors that can affect the habitability of planetary environments are numerous, and the disciplines that can contribute to their investigation and interpretation include, physics, chemistry, geology, biology, and astronomy to name a few.ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 1.1 1.2 2.1 4.3 6.2
Postdoctoral Fellow Report: Steven Mielke
This project seeks to resolve the long-wavelength limit of oxygenic photosynthesis in order to constrain the range of extrasolar environments in which spectral signatures of biogenic oxygen might be found, and thereby guide future planet detecting and characterizing observatories.ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 5.1 6.1 6.2 7.2
Stellar Effects on Planetary Habitability
Habitable environments are most likely to exist in close proximity to a star, and hence a detailed and comprehensive understanding of the effect of the star on planetary habitability is crucial in the pursuit of an inhabited world. We model how stars with different masses, temperatures and flare activity affect the habitability of planets. We also address the effect that tides between a star and a planet have on planetary habitability, including the power to turn potentially habitable planets like Earth into extremely volcanically active bodies like Io.ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 1.1 1.2 2.1 2.2 4.1 4.3 5.3 6.1 7.2
Understanding Past Earth Environments
This project examines the evolution of the Earth over time. This year we examined and expanded the geological record of Earth’s history, and ran models to help interpret those data. Models were also used to simulate what the early Earth would look like if viewed remotely through a telescope similar to NASA’s Terrestrial Planet Finder mission concept. We focused our efforts on the Earth as it existed in prior to and during the rise of atmospheric oxygen 2.4 billion years ago, as this was one of the most dramatic and important events in the evolution of the Earth and its inhabitants.ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 1.1 1.2 2.1 4.1 4.2 4.3 5.1 5.2 5.3 6.1
Delivery of Volatiles to Terrestrial Planets
Terrestrial planets are too small to trap gas from the circumstellar disk in which they formed and so must be built from solid materials (rock and ices). In this task, we explore how and when Earth, Mars and other potentially-habitable worlds accumulated water and organic carbon. The main challenge is that water and organic carbon are relatively volatile elements (compared to rock and metal). Therefore, during the period of time in which solids condensed at the current position of Earth, water and carbon would have been mainly in the gas phase. Getting these materials to earth required that inward transportation of material from further out in the disk.ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 1.1 3.1 4.1 4.3
The Astrobiology Graduate Student Conference (AbGradCon) was held on the UW campus July 17 – 20 2009. AbGradCon supports NAI’s mission to carry out, support and catalyze collaborative, interdisciplinary research, train the next generation of astrobiology researchers, provide scientific and technical leadership on astrobiology investigations for current and future space missions, and explore new approaches using modern information technology to conduct interdisciplinary and collaborative research amongst widely-distributed investigators. This was done through a diverse range of activities, ranging from formal talks and poster sessions to free time for collaboration-enabling discussions, social activities, web 2.0 conference extensions, public outreach and grant writing simulations.ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 1.1 1.2 2.1 2.2 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 4.1 4.2 4.3 5.1 5.2 5.3 6.1 6.2 7.1 7.2
Earth as an Extrasolar Planet
Earth is the only known planet that can support life on its surface, and serves as our only example of what a habitable planet looks like. This task uses distant observations of the Earth taken from spacecraft combined with a sophisticated computer model of the Earth to understand the appearance and characteristics of a habitable planet. With our model, we can generate accurate simulations of the Earth’s brightness, color and spectrum, when viewed at different time-intervals, and from different vantage points. We are using these simulations to understand how we might detect signs of an ocean on a distant planet, and to understand the limitations of surface temperature measurements when a planet has significant cloud cover.ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 1.2 7.2
Planet Formation and Dynamical Modeling
We examine how various formation processes may impact the potential development of an habitable world, and how subsequent orbital evolution can affect habitability. We explore these phenomena through numerical simulations that allow us to determine the compositions, orbits, and sometimes the internal properties of terrestrial in the Solar System and beyond.ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 1.1 3.1 4.3
Education & Public Outreach
Bailey, J. (2009). A comparison of water vapor line parameters for modeling the Venus deep atmosphere. Icarus, 201(2), 444–453. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2009.01.013
Bailey, J., Butler, R. P., Tinney, C. G., Jones, H. R. A., O’Toole, S., Carter, B. D., & Marcy, G. W. (2008). A JUPITER-LIKE PLANET ORBITING THE NEARBY M DWARF GJ 832. The Astrophysical Journal, 690(1), 743–747. doi:10.1088/0004-637x/690/1/743
Bailey, J., Chamberlain, S., Crisp, D., & Meadows, V. S. (2008). Near infrared imaging spectroscopy of Venus with the Anglo-Australian Telescope. Planetary and Space Science, 56(10), 1385–1390. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2008.03.006
Bailey, J., Meadows, V., Chamberlain, S., & Crisp, D. (2008). The temperature of the Venus mesosphere from O2 (aΔg1) airglow observations. Icarus, 197(1), 247–259. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2008.04.007
Barnes, R., Jackson, B., Greenberg, R., & Raymond, S. N. (2009). TIDAL LIMITS TO PLANETARY HABITABILITY. The Astrophysical Journal, 700(1), L30–L33. doi:10.1088/0004-637x/700/1/l30
Barnes, R., Jackson, B., Raymond, S. N., West, A. A., & Greenberg, R. (2009). THE HD 40307 PLANETARY SYSTEM: SUPER-EARTHS OR MINI-NEPTUNES?. The Astrophysical Journal, 695(2), 1006–1011. doi:10.1088/0004-637x/695/2/1006
Barnes, R., Quinn, T. R., Lissauer, J. J., & Richardson, D. C. (2009). N-Body simulations of growth from 1km planetesimals at 0.4AU. Icarus, 203(2), 626–643. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2009.03.042
Buick, R. (2008). When did oxygenic photosynthesis evolve?. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 363(1504), 2731–2743. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0041
Catling, D. C., Claire, M. W., Zahnle, K. J., Quinn, R. C., Clark, B. C., Hecht, M. H., & Kounaves, S. (2010). Atmospheric origins of perchlorate on Mars and in the Atacama. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115. doi:10.1029/2009je003425
Cowan, N. B., Agol, E., Meadows, V. S., Robinson, T., Livengood, T. A., Deming, D., … Charbonneau, D. (2009). ALIEN MAPS OF AN OCEAN-BEARING WORLD. The Astrophysical Journal, 700(2), 915–923. doi:10.1088/0004-637x/700/2/915
Des Marais, D. J., Nuth, J. A., Allamandola, L. J., Boss, A. P., Farmer, J. D., Hoehler, T. M., … Spormann, A. M. (2008). The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap. Astrobiology, 8(4), 715–730. doi:10.1089/ast.2008.0819
Domagal-Goldman, S. D., & Kubicki, J. D. (2008). Density functional theory predictions of equilibrium isotope fractionation of iron due to redox changes and organic complexation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 72(21), 5201–5216. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2008.05.066
Domagal-Goldman, S. D., Paul, K. W., Sparks, D. L., & Kubicki, J. D. (2009). Quantum chemical study of the Fe(III)-desferrioxamine B siderophore complex—Electronic structure, vibrational frequencies, and equilibrium Fe-isotope fractionation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 73(1), 1–12. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2008.09.031
Gaidos, E., Krot, A. N., Williams, J. P., & Raymond, S. N. (2009). 26 Al AND THE FORMATION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM FROM A MOLECULAR CLOUD CONTAMINATED BY WOLF-RAYET WINDS. The Astrophysical Journal, 696(2), 1854–1863. doi:10.1088/0004-637x/696/2/1854
Garvin, J., Buick, R., Anbar, A. D., Arnold, G. L., & Kaufman, A. J. (2009). Isotopic Evidence for an Aerobic Nitrogen Cycle in the Latest Archean. Science, 323(5917), 1045–1048. doi:10.1126/science.1165675
George, S. C., Dutkiewicz, A., Volk, H., Ridley, J., Mossman, D. J., & Buick, R. (2009). Oil-bearing fluid inclusions from the Palaeoproterozoic: A review of biogeochemical results from time-capsules >2.0 Ga old. Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, 52(1), 1–11. doi:10.1007/s11430-009-0004-4
Grillmair, C. J., Burrows, A., Charbonneau, D., Armus, L., Stauffer, J., Meadows, V., … Levine, D. (2008). Strong water absorption in the dayside emission spectrum of the planet HD 189733b. Nature, 456(7223), 767–769. doi:10.1038/nature07574
Haqq-Misra, J. D., Domagal-Goldman, S. D., Kasting, P. J., & Kasting, J. F. (2008). A Revised, Hazy Methane Greenhouse for the Archean Earth. Astrobiology, 8(6), 1127–1137. doi:10.1089/ast.2007.0197
Jackson, B., Barnes, R., & Greenberg, R. (2009). OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE FOR TIDAL DESTRUCTION OF EXOPLANETS. The Astrophysical Journal, 698(2), 1357–1366. doi:10.1088/0004-637x/698/2/1357
Konhauser, K. O., Pecoits, E., Lalonde, S. V., Papineau, D., Nisbet, E. G., Barley, M. E., … Kamber, B. S. (2009). Oceanic nickel depletion and a methanogen famine before the Great Oxidation Event. Nature, 458(7239), 750–753. doi:10.1038/nature07858
Kopparapu, R. K., Raymond, S. N., & Barnes, R. (2009). STABILITY OF ADDITIONAL PLANETS IN AND AROUND THE HABITABLE ZONE OF THE HD 47186 PLANETARY SYSTEM. The Astrophysical Journal, 695(2), L181–L184. doi:10.1088/0004-637x/695/2/l181
Li, K-F., Pahlevan, K., Kirschvink, J. L., & Yung, Y. L. (2009). Atmospheric pressure as a natural climate regulator for a terrestrial planet with a biosphere. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(24), 9576–9579. doi:10.1073/pnas.0809436106
Lunine, J. I., O’Brien, D. P., Raymond, S. N., Morbidelli, A., Quinn, T., & Graps, A. L. (2011). Dynamical Models of Terrestrial Planet Formation. Advanced Science Letters, 4(2), 325–338. doi:10.1166/asl.2011.1212
Meadows, V. S., Orton, G., Line, M., Liang, M-C., Yung, Y. L., Van Cleve, J., & Burgdorf, M. J. (2008). First Spitzer observations of Neptune: Detection of new hydrocarbons. Icarus, 197(2), 585–589. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2008.05.023
Moeckel, N., Raymond, S. N., & Armitage, P. J. (2008). Extrasolar Planet Eccentricities from Scattering in the Presence of Residual Gas Disks. The Astrophysical Journal, 688(2), 1361–1367. doi:10.1086/592286
Ni-Meister, W., Yang, W., & Kiang, N. Y. (2010). A clumped-foliage canopy radiative transfer model for a global dynamic terrestrial ecosystem model. I: Theory. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 150(7-8), 881–894. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2010.02.009
Parkinson, C. D., Liang, M-C., Yung, Y. L., & Kirschivnk, J. L. (2008). Habitability of Enceladus: Planetary Conditions for Life. Orig Life Evol Biosph, 38(4), 355–369. doi:10.1007/s11084-008-9135-4
Raymond, S. N., Armitage, P. J., & Gorelick, N. (2009). PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING IN PLANETESIMAL DISKS. The Astrophysical Journal, 699(2), L88–L92. doi:10.1088/0004-637x/699/2/l88
Raymond, S. N., Barnes, R., Veras, D., Armitage, P. J., Gorelick, N., & Greenberg, R. (2009). PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING LEADS TO TIGHTLY PACKED PLANETARY SYSTEMS. The Astrophysical Journal, 696(1), L98–L101. doi:10.1088/0004-637x/696/1/l98
Raymond, S. N., O’Brien, D. P., Morbidelli, A., & Kaib, N. A. (2009). Building the terrestrial planets: Constrained accretion in the inner Solar System. Icarus, 203(2), 644–662. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2009.05.016
Rothman, L. S., Gordon, I. E., Barbe, A., Benner, D. C., Bernath, P. F., Birk, M., … Vander Auwera, J. (2009). The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 110(9-10), 533–572. doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2009.02.013
Segura, A., Walkowicz, L. M., Meadows, V., Kasting, J., & Hawley, S. (2010). The Effect of a Strong Stellar Flare on the Atmospheric Chemistry of an Earth-like Planet Orbiting an M Dwarf. Astrobiology, 10(7), 751–771. doi:10.1089/ast.2009.0376
Shen, Y., Farquhar, J., Masterson, A., Kaufman, A. J., & Buick, R. (2009). Evaluating the role of microbial sulfate reduction in the early Archean using quadruple isotope systematics. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 279(3-4), 383–391. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2009.01.018
Sleep, N. H. (2009). Stagnant lid convection and carbonate metasomatism of the deep continental lithosphere. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 10(11), n/a–n/a. doi:10.1029/2009gc002702
Sleep, N. H., & K Bird, D. (2008). Evolutionary ecology during the rise of dioxygen in the Earth’s atmosphere. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 363(1504), 2651–2664. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0018
Smith, D. S., & Scalo, J. M. (2009). Habitable Zones Exposed: Astrosphere Collapse Frequency as a Function of Stellar Mass. Astrobiology, 9(7), 673–681. doi:10.1089/ast.2009.0337
Swain, M. R., Tinetti, G., Vasisht, G., Deroo, P., Griffith, C., Bouwman, J., … Angerhausen, D. (2009). WATER, METHANE, AND CARBON DIOXIDE PRESENT IN THE DAYSIDE SPECTRUM OF THE EXOPLANET HD 209458b. The Astrophysical Journal, 704(2), 1616–1621. doi:10.1088/0004-637x/704/2/1616
Tian, F. (2009). THERMAL ESCAPE FROM SUPER EARTH ATMOSPHERES IN THE HABITABLE ZONES OF M STARS. The Astrophysical Journal, 703(1), 905–909. doi:10.1088/0004-637x/703/1/905
Tian, F., Kasting, J. F., & Solomon, S. C. (2009). Thermal escape of carbon from the early Martian atmosphere. Geophysical Research Letters, 36(2), n/a–n/a. doi:10.1029/2008gl036513
Zahnle, K. (2008). Atmospheric chemistry: Her dark materials. Nature, 454(7200), 41–42. doi:10.1038/454041a
Zahnle, K., Haberle, R. M., Catling, D. C., & Kasting, J. F. (2008). Photochemical instability of the ancient Martian atmosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113(E11), None. doi:10.1029/2008je003160
- Anderson, R., Ewerts, M. & Stueken, E. (2009). The World-Wide-Web Origins of Life: Using a Collaborative Website as a Tool to Develop an Integrative Model for the Origin of Life. Astrobiology, 9(5): 517.
- Boss, A., Young, E., Meadows, V. & Haghighipour, N. (2009). Achieving the Goals and Objectives of the 2008 NASA Astrobiology Roadmap. Astro2010: The Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey, Science White Papers, 21. doi:2009astro2010S..21B
- Buick, R. (2008). Earth’s earliest records of life. Mars Science Laboratory 3rd Workshop. Monrovia CA.
- Buick, R. (2008). When did oxygenic photosynthesis evolve – the geological evidence. University of Southern California New Approaches to Deep Time Symposium. Santa Catalina CA.
- Buick, R. (2009). Evidence of early life from drilling in the Pilbara. European Science Foundation Archaean Environment Conference. Mekrijarvi Finland.
- Carter, R., Jandir, P.S. & Kress, M.E. (2009). Estimating the Drag Coefficients of Meteorites for All Mach Number Regimes. 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, (Lunar and Planetary Science XL). The Woodlands, Texas.
- Claire, M. (2009). Volcanic SO2, atmospheric photochemistry, and climate on early Mars. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 73(13): A227.
- Claire, M., Catling, D. & Zahnle, K. (2008). First Results froms a Time-dependent 1D early Earth Photochemical Model. Astrobiology, 8(2): 423.
- Conrad, P.G., M.L.Fogel, Glamoclija, M., Kerr, L., Mogensen, C., Eigenbrode, J., Mahaffy, P.R. & Steele, A. (2009). Metrics for Habitability Assessment. 40th Lunar Plan. Sci.
- Cowan, N. (2009). Alien Maps of a Pale Blue Dot. Astrobiology, 9(5): 510.
- Des Marais, D.J., Jakosky, B.M. & Hynek, B.M. (2008). Astrobiological implications of Mars surface composition and propertie. In: Bell, J.A. (Eds.). Planetary Science. Vol. 9.
- Domagal-Goldman, S., Kasting, J. & Meadows, V. (2008). Examining the Ability of Sulfur-Bearing Gases to act as Biosignatures on Anoxic Planets. AGU Fall Meeting 2008. San Francisco.
- Domagal-Goldman, S.D. (2008). Planetary biosignatures: Back to the future. Seattle, WA.
- Domagal-Goldman, S.D. (2009). Density functional theory and Fe isotope fractionation. Tempe, AZ.
- Domagal-Goldman, S.D. (2009). False positives and false negatives for life on extrasolar planets. Pasadena, CA.
- Domagal-Goldman, S.D. (2009). Quantum astrochemistry: Densitry functional theory in astronomy. Seattle, WA.
- Domagal-Goldman, S.D. (2009). Searching for smelly planets: sulfur gases as anoxic biosignatures. Tempe, AZ.
- Domagal-Goldman, S.D., Kasting, J.F. & Meadows, V.S. (2008). Examining the ability of sulfur-bearing gases to act as biosignatures on anoxic planets. EOS, Transactions of AGU.
- Foriel, J., Stüeken, E.E., Nelson, B.K. & Buick, R. (2009). Selenium biogeochemistry as a deep-time redox proxy. Goldschmidt Conference. Davos Switzerland.
- Gaidos, E., Williams, J. & Raymond, S. (2008). Al-26: Origin, Variation, And Implications. 2008 DPS Meeting.
- Gaidos, E., Williams, J. & Raymond, S. (2008). Al-26: Origin, Variation, And Implications. DPS Meeting.
- George, S.C., Dutkiewicz, A., Volk, H., Ridley, J. & Buick, R. (2009). Stability of complex hydrocarbons within fluid inclusions in rocks exposed to high temperatures. Goldschmidt Conference. Davos Switzerland.
- Haqq-Misra, J. (2009). Warming Early Mars with NO2. Astrobiology, 9(5): 512.
- Hewagama, T., A’Hearn, M.F., Deming, D., Charbonneau, D., Lisse, C.M., Livengood, T.A., McFadden, L.A., Meadows, V.S., Seager, S., Wellnitz, D.D. & Team, E-E. (2009). The Astronomical Color of Earth from EPOXI Observations. Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 40: 404.
- Jackson, B., Barnes, R. & Greenberg, R. (2008). Tidal Heating of Terrestrial Extra-Solar Planets and Implications for their Habitability. Astron. Soc, 391: 237-245.
- Kaib, N. (2009). Constraining the Comet Impact Hazard to Earth’s. Astrobiology, 9(5): 513.
- Kiang, N.Y., Armstrong, J.C., Brown, L.R. & Meadows, V.S. (2009). The Virtual Planetary Laboratory Spectral Library: a community database of stellar, molecular, mineral, and biological pigment spectral properties for astrobiology research. 2nd HyspIRI ScienceWorkshop. Pasadena, CA.
- Kiang, N.Y., Kharecha, P., DelGrosso, S., Aleinov, I., Puma, M. & Y., K. (Dec. 15-19, 2008). Seasonal and Long-Term Behavior of Soil and Autotrophic Respiration in the Ent Dynamic Global Terrestrial Ecosystem Model. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting. Moscone Convention Center, San Francisco, CA.
- Kress, M. (2008). When, and from where, do habitable planets acquire their carbon? COSPAR Scientific Assembly. Montreal, Canada.
- Kress, M. (2009). VPL science/Delivery of volatiles. San Mateo, CA. May.
- Kress, M. (2009). Seattle. June.
- Kress, M. (Oct 26-30, 2008). Chemistry in the inner regions of protoplanetary disks. New Light on Young Stars: Spitzer’s View of Circumstellar Disks. Pasadena, CA.
- Kress, M.E., Meadows, V.S., Raymond, S. & Tielens, A.G.G.M. (2008). When, and from where, do habitable planets acquire their carbon? 37th COSPAR Scientific Assembly. Montréal, Canada.
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