The Biological Oceanography Program of the National Science Foundation (NSF) supports fundamental research in biological oceanography and marine ecology (populations to the ecosystems) broadly defined: relationships among aquatic organisms and their interactions with the environments of the oceans or Great Lakes. Projects submitted to the program are often interdisciplinary efforts that may include participation by other OCE or BIO Programs. Proposals are accepted at any time.

As of January 1, 2021, the Biological Oceanography Program will no longer have target dates. Investigators can submit proposals at any time, and mail reviews are solicited as proposals are received. Proposals go through the normal two-stage merit review of ad hoc mail review and Panel. Panels are constituted based on the rate of proposals received. Additional information on the new submission process can be found on NSF 20-130 and the FAQ webpage.