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2001 Annual Science Report

NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Reporting  |  JUL 2000 – JUN 2001

Laboratory/Observational Studies of Biogenic Greenhouse Gases on the Early Earth

4 Institutions
3 Teams
0 Publications
0 Field Sites
Field Sites

Project Progress

Laboratory/Observational Studies of Biogenic Greenhouse Gases on the Early Earth

Our reserch centers on isotopic studies of biogenic greenhouse gases as evidence for life on the large scale, appropriate for remote sensing approaches and on global biogeochemical investigations. Our early work in this area was concerned with the early and present biogeochemical evolution of the Earth, but over the last year we have focused strongly on developing new tools for the exploration of Mars and other extraterrestrial environments. Our particular tracer of emphasis is stable isotope fractionation, and we seek to understand whether or not these signatures can be reliably detected in extraterrestrial solar system bodies and exo-planetary systems. We have now characterized in detail the fractionation induced by the photolysis of NNO first predicted by Prof. Yung using a combination of non-linear spectroscopic light sources and mass spectrometry or FTIR spectroscopy.

Neither of these approaches is compatible with the stringent space and weight requirements of in situ planetary exploration strategies. We are therefore developing new technologies that should enable the in situ measurements of important radiatively and biogenically active gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, water, methane, nitrous oxide, and hydrogen sulfide to very high precision in order to examine the atmospheric dynamics and potential biogeochemistry on Mars, Titan, and other solar system bodies. Specifically, we are using laser diodes and sensors to image infrared laser induced fluorescence (IR-LIF). The support from NAI was used to conduct pivotal modeling tests of this approach, which has resulted in a successful proposal to the NASA PIDDP program . PIDDP now provides the larger funding base to actually fabricate these new tools through a three-year program to combine microchip lasers with state-of-the-art HgCdTe detectors to investigate the sensitivity of IR-LIF under realistic planetary conditions, to optimize the optical pumping and filtering schemes for important species, and to apply the spectrometer to the non-destructive measurement of stable isotopes in a variety of test samples. These studies form the necessary precursors to the development of compact, lightweight stable isotope/trace gas sensors for future planetary missions. We will continue to work on modeling of the potential biological activity on Mars and the early Earth, and on the isotopic signatures of various model biospheres. This research is groundbreaking, and it provides the necessary context for IR-LIF to be used as a robust diagnostic of extant or extinct (through its sampling of gases trapped in martian soils and ice caps) biota on and underneath planetary surfaces.

    Yuk Yung

    Thom Rahn

    Vadym Kapinus
    Graduate Student

    Objective 5.0
    Describe the sequences of causes and effects associated with the development of Earth's early biosphere and the global environment.

    Objective 8.0
    Search for evidence of ancient climates, extinct life and potential habitats for extant life on Mars.

    Objective 12.0
    Define climatological and geological effects upon the limits of habitable zones around the Sun and other stars to help define the frequency of habitable planets in the universe.