3 items with the tag “mass extinctions

  • Habitable Planet Formation and Orbital Dynamical Effects on Planetary Habitability
    NAI 2013 VPL at University of Washington Annual Report

    The VPL explores how variations in orbital properties affects the growth, evolution and habitability of planets. The formation process must deliver the appropriate ingredients for life to a planet in order for it to become habitable. After planets form, interactions between a habitable planet at its host star and/or other planets in the system can change planetary properties, possibly rendering the planet uninhabitable. The VPL models these processes through computer models in order to understand how the Earth became and remains habitable, as well as examining and predicting habitability on planets outside the Solar System.

    ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 1.1 1.2 3.1 4.3
  • Biosphere-Geosphere Stability and the Evolution of Complex Life
    NAI 2014 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Annual Report

    Both the rise of complex life and the Phanerozoic mass extinctions are accompanied by significant perturbations of the carbon cycle. Attention is usually focused on causality, and environmental change is almost always considered the driver. Yet the co-evolution of life and the environment suggests that the fundamental issue is not causality but rather stability. This project seeks to develop a theory of biosphere-geosphere stability and to test it using the geochemical and fossil records.

    ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 4.2 4.3 5.2 6.1
  • Habitable Planet Formation and Orbital Dynamical Effects on Planetary Habitability
    NAI 2014 VPL at University of Washington Annual Report

    This task explores how habitable planets form and how their orbits evolve with time. Terrestrial planet formation involves colliding rocks in a thin gaseous disk surrounding a newborn star and VPL’s modeling efforts simulate the orbital and collisional evolution of a few to millions of small bodies to determine the composition, mass and orbital parameters of planets that ultimately reach the habitable zone. After formation, gravitational interactions with the star and planet can induce short- and long-term changes in orbital properties that can change available energy to drive climate and illuminate the planetary surface. The VPL simulates these effects in known and hypothetical planetary systems in order to determine the range of variations that permit planetary habitability.

    ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 1.1 1.2 3.1 4.3