7 items with the tag “extrasolar planets

  • NNX09AH63A Origin and Evolution of Organics in Planetary Systems
    NAI 2013 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Annual Report

    The Blake group has been carrying out joint observational and laboratory program with NAI node scientists on the water and simple organic chemistry in the protoplanetary disk analogs of the solar nebula and in comets. Observationally, we continue to build on our extensive (>100 disks) Spitzer IRS survey of the infrared molecular emission from the terrestrial planet forming region of disks with follow-up work using the high spectral resolution ground-based observations of such emission (via the Keck and the Very Large Telescopes, the Herschel Space Observatory, and ALMA) along with that from comets. This year, we emphasized the disk systems in which we have probed the outer disk’s water emission with the Herschel HIFI instrument. With Herschel PACS we have measured the ground state emission from HD for the first time, yielding much more accurate mass estimates, that we have used in turn to carry out the first detailed examination of the radial water abundance structure in the planet-forming environments represented by the so-called transitional disk class. In the laboratory, we have developed a novel approach to broad-band chirped pulse microwave spectroscopy that promises to drop the size, mass and cost of such instruments by one to two orders of magnitude. We are using the new instrument to measure the rotational spectra of prebiotic compounds, and our existing THz Time Domain Spectrometer to characterize their large amplitude vibrations. Looking forward, these techniques have the potential to make site-specific stable isotope measurements, a capability we will explore with GSFC Node scientists.

    ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 1.1 1.2 3.1
  • SMACK: A New Algorithm for Modeling Collisions and Dynamics of Planetesimals in Debris Disks
    NAI 2013 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Annual Report

    Finding habitable planets and understanding the delivery of volatiles to their surfaces requires understanding the disks of rocky and icy debris that these planets orbit within. But modeling the physics of these disks is complicated because of the challenge of tracking collisions among trillions of trillions of colliding bodies. We developed a new technique and a new code for modeling the collisions and dynamics of debris disks, called “SMACK” which will help us interpret images of planetary systems to better understand how planetesimals transport material within young planetary systems.

    ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 1.1 1.2 3.1
  • Project 1: Looking Outward: Studies of the Physical and Chemical Evolution of Planetary Systems
    NAI 2013 Carnegie Institution of Washington Annual Report

    We continue to apply theory and observations to investigate the nature and distribution of extrasolar planets both through radial velocity and astrometric methods, the composition of circumstellar disks, early mixing and transport in young disks, and late mixing and planetary migration in the Solar System, and Solar System bodies.

    ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 1.1 1.2 2.2 3.1
  • Exoplanet Detection and Characterization: Observations
    NAI 2013 VPL at University of Washington Annual Report

    In this task, VPL researchers use astronomical instrumentation to detect and measure the properties of exoplanets. They also study terrestrial planets in our Solar System that can serve as practice targets for exoplanet observational techniques. These observations help us to develop and understand the techniques and measurements required to learn about planetary environments. Although many of these observations are now made on planets that are too large, or too close to their stars to be habitable, once proven, these techniques can then be adapted to help characterize the smaller, cooler planets that may be habitable.

    ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 1.2 2.2 7.2
  • Circumstellar Debris and Planetesimals in Exoplanetary Systems
    NAI 2014 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Annual Report

    This year, GCA astronomer Marc Kuchner invited the public to help him discover new planetary systems through a new website, DiskDetective.org. At DiskDetective.org, volunteers view data from NASA’s Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission and three other surveys. WISE measured more than 745 million objects, representing the most comprehensive survey of the sky at mid-infrared wavelengths ever taken.

    ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 1.1 1.2 3.1
  • NNX09AH63A Origin and Evolution of Organics in Planetary Systems
    NAI 2014 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Annual Report

    The Blake group has been carrying out joint observational and laboratory programs with NAI node scientists on the water and simple organic chemistry in the protoplanetary disk analogs of the solar nebula and in comets. Observationally, we continue to build on our extensive (>100 disks) Spitzer IRS survey of the infrared molecular emission from the terrestrial planet forming region of disks with follow-up work using the high spectral resolution ground-based observations of such emission (via the Keck and the Very Large Telescopes, the Herschel Space Observatory, SOFIA, and ALMA) along with that from comets. This year, we emphasized disk studies with the rapidly maturing capabilities of the ALMA observatory, that promises to revolutionize our understanding of the formation and migration of protoplanets, and with infrared studies of the molecular volatiles detectable in both comets and exoplanetary atmospheres. In the lab, we have continued to exploit our novel approach to broad-band chirped pulse microwave spectroscopy that promises to drop the size, mass and cost of such instruments by one to two orders of magnitude, and have developed a decade-spanning THz frequency comb with unprecedented precision. We are using these new instruments to measure the rotational spectra of prebiotic compounds, along with a detailed characterization of their large amplitude vibrations. Looking forward, these techniques have the potential to make site-specific stable isotope measurements, a capability we will continue to explore with GSFC Node scientists.

    ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 1.1 1.2 3.1
  • Exoplanet Detection and Characterization: Observations, Techniques and Retrieval
    NAI 2014 VPL at University of Washington Annual Report

    In this task, VPL team members use observations and theory to better understand how to detect and characterize extrasolar planets. Techniques to improve the detection of extrasolar planets, and in particular smaller, potentially Earth-like planets are developed, along with techniques to probe the physical and chemical properties of exoplanet atmospheres. These latter techniques require analysis of spectra to best understand how it might be possible to identify whether an extrasolar planet is able to support life, or already has life on it.

    ROADMAP OBJECTIVES: 1.2 2.2 7.2