Workshops Without Walls Seminars Workshop Without Walls concept was developed by the NAI as part of its mandate to use modern information technology to foster interdisciplinary and collaborative research among widely distributed investigators. Seminarsen-usSat, 06 Jun 2020 05:18:32 +0000Astrovirology you for your interest in Astrovirology, please take a minute to fill out a survey to improve future virtual workshops. <a href="" target="_blank"></a> <b>Dates:</b> Wed, Sept 18 8:00AM - 12:00PM PDT and Thurs, Sept 19 1:00PM - 5:00PM PDT <b><a href="" target="_blank">Meeting Recording Day 1</a></b> <b><a href="" target="_blank">Meeting Recording Day 2</a></b> The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Astrobiology Institute (NAI) is hosting a virtual Workshop Without Walls on Astrovirology to review and advance the science of understanding what a virus is, their origin, ecology, impact on evolution, and their role in exobiology as a biosignature. This virtual workshop will be over two half-days to enabled global scientific exchange with no attendance costs or travel required. Topics covered will presented in a manner to reach a range of scientific understanding including students, researchers, educators, science writers, and members of the general public. This virtual workshop will consist of presentations and time for questions or discussion periods, facilitated through an online multi-user video-conferencing system hosted by the technical facilities of the NAI. <strong>Science Organizing Committee:</strong> Gareth (Gary) Trubl, Lawrence Livermore National Lab, Kathryn Bywaters, NASA Ames/SETI, Kenneth Stedman, Portland State University, Penelope Boston, NASA Ames, <strong>Schedule:</strong> (talk length/time for questions) <b>Day 1 – Wednesday, September 18, 2019, 8:00AM - 12:00PM PDT Theme: Origins and Evolution </b> 8:00–8:30 | <a href="" target="_blank">Welcome and Introductions</a> | Penny Boston, Ken Stedman | 30/0 8:30–9:00 | <a href="" target="_blank">Detecting Life Universally (in Water)</a> | Steven Benner (Foundation For Applied Molecular Evolution, USA; | 20/10 9:00–9:30 | <a href="" target="_blank">Small Circular DNA Viruses: The muddy “playground” of recombinant, reassortant, and highly diverse viruses</a> | Arvind Varsani (Arizona State University, USA; | 20/10 9:30–10:00 | <a href="" target="_blank">Viruses never do as they’re told, and there’s a good reason for it: bacteria-phage coevolution as a driver of diversity</a> | Britt Koskella (University of California Berkeley, USA; | 20/10 10:00–10:30 | Viral symbiosis: New rules for pre-cellular evolutionary tempo and mode | Rachel Whitaker (University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, USA; | 20/10 10:30–10:40 | Break 10:40–11:10 | <a href="" target="_blank">Viral infection modes and invasion fitness across a continuum from lysis to latency</a> | Joshua Weitz (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA; | 20/10 11:10–11:40 | <a href="" target="_blank">Possibilities and pitfalls of expanded host range mutations</a> | Siobain Duffy (Rutgers University, USA; | 20/10 11:40–12:00 | Closing remarks | Ken Stedman | 10/10 <b>Day 2 – Thursday, September 19, 2019, 1:00PM - 5:00PM PDT Theme: Ecology and Exobiology</b> 1:00–1:10 | Opening remarks | Ken Stedman | 10/0 1:10–1:50 | <a href="" target="_blank">Virus taxonomy: What is it and why should I care?</a> | Evelien Adriaenssens (Quadram Institute Bioscience, UK; | 30/10 1:50–2:20 | <a href="" target="_blank">Astrovirology in marine systems: how virus-microbe interactions accelerate evolution and generate organismal diversity</a> | Nigel Goldenfeld (University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, USA; | 20/10 2:20–3:00 | <a href="" target="_blank">Viral ecogenomics: exploring viral diversity and virus-host interactions from metagenomes</a> | Simon Roux (Joint Genome Institute, USA; | 30/10 3:00–3:30 | <a href="" target="_blank">Life detection and viruses as biosignatures</a> | Kathryn Bywaters (NASA Ames/SETI, USA; | 20/10 3:30–3:40 | Break 3:40–4:10 | <a href="" target="_blank">Using stable isotopes to track viruses in soils</a> | Gary Trubl (Lawrence Livermore National Lab USA; | 20/10 4:10–4:40 | <a href="" target="_blank">Astrovirology - What's missing?</a> | Ken Stedman (Portland State University, USA; | 20/10 4:40–5:00 | Acknowledgements | Penny Boston, Ken Stedman, Gary Trubl, Kathy Bywaters | 15/5 <strong>Workshop Resources:</strong> <a href="" target="_blank">What is Astrobiology</a> <a href="" target="_blank">Astrobiology at NASA</a> <a href="" target="_blank">NASA Astrobiology Institute</a> <a href="" target="_blank">Ask an Astrobiologist Homepage</a> <a href="" target="_blank">The History of Astrobiology</a> <a href="" target="_blank">The Astrobiology Primer</a> <a href="" target="_blank">Bacteriophage</a> <a href="" target="_blank">ViralZone</a> <a href="" target="_blank">Previous NASA Astrobiology Roadmap.</a> <strong>Suggested articles:</strong> Pett-Ridge, J. and Firestone, M.K., 2017. Using stable isotopes to explore root-microbe-mineral interactions in soil. Rhizosphere, 3, pp.244-253. [<a href="" target="_blank"></a>] Musat, N., Musat, F., Weber, P.K. and Pett-Ridge, J., 2016. Tracking microbial interactions with NanoSIMS. Current opinion in biotechnology, 41, pp.114-121. [<a href="" target="_blank">]</a> Blazewicz, S.J., Schwartz, E. and Firestone, M.K., 2014. Growth and death of bacteria and fungi underlie rainfall‐induced carbon dioxide pulses from seasonally dried soil. Ecology, 95(5), pp.1162-1172. [<a href="" target="_blank"></a>] Blazewicz, S.J. and Schwartz, E., 2011. Dynamics of 18 O incorporation from H 2 18 O into soil microbial DNA. Microbial ecology, 61(4), pp.911-916. [<a href="" target="_blank"></a>] Pacton, M., Wacey, D., Corinaldesi, C., Tangherlini, M., Kilburn, M.R., Gorin, G.E., Danovaro, R. and Vasconcelos, C., 2014. Viruses as new agents of organomineralization in the geological record. Nature communications, 5, p.4298. [<a href="" target="_blank"></a>] Trubl G, Roux S, Solonenko N, Li Y, Bolduc B, Rodríguez-Ramos J, Eloe-Fadrosh EA, Rich VI, Sullivan MB. 2019. Towards optimized viral metagenomes for double-stranded and single-stranded DNA viruses from challenging soils. PeerJ 7:e7265 [<a href="" target="_blank"></a>] Roux S, Trubl G, Goudeau D, Nath N, Couradeau E, Ahlgren NA, Zhan Y, Marsan D, Chen F, Fuhrman JA, Northen TR, Sullivan MB, Rich VI, Malmstrom RR, Eloe-Fadrosh EA. 2019. Optimizing de novo genome assembly from PCR-amplified metagenomes. PeerJ 7:e6902 [<a href="" target="_blank"></a>] Horlacher, J., Hottiger, M., Podust, V.N., Hübscher, U. and Benner, S.A., 1995. Recognition by viral and cellular DNA polymerases of nucleosides bearing bases with nonstandard hydrogen bonding patterns. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 92(14), pp.6329-6333. [<a href="" target="_blank"></a>] Warwick-Dugdale, J., Solonenko, N., Moore, K., Chittick, L., Gregory, A.C., Allen, M.J., Sullivan, M.B. and Temperton, B., 2019. Long-read viral metagenomics captures abundant and microdiverse viral populations and their niche-defining genomic islands. PeerJ, 7, p.e6800. [<a href="" target="_blank"></a>] Wongsurawat, T., Jenjaroenpun, P., Taylor, M., Lee, J., Tolardo, A.L., Parvathareddy, J., Kandel, S., Wadley, T.D., Kaewnapan, B., Athipanyasilp, N. and Skidmore, A., 2019. Rapid sequencing of multiple RNA viruses in their native form. Frontiers in microbiology, 10, p.260. <a href="" target="_blank">[</a>] Boldogkői, Z., Moldován, N., Balázs, Z., Snyder, M. and Tombácz, D., 2019. Long-read sequencing–a powerful tool in viral transcriptome research. Trends in microbiology. [<a href="" target="_blank"></a>] Benner, S.A., 2017. Detecting Darwinism from molecules in the Enceladus plumes, Jupiter's moons, and other planetary water lagoons. Astrobiology, 17(9), pp.840-851. [<a href="" target="_blank"></a>] Berliner, A.J., Mochizuki, T. and Stedman, K.M., 2018. Astrovirology: Viruses at large in the universe. Astrobiology, 18(2), pp.207-223. [<a href="" target="_blank"></a>] Zhao, L., Seth-Pasricha, M., Stemate, D., Crespo-Bellido, A., Gagnon, J., Draghi, J. and Duffy, S., 2019. Existing host range mutations constrain further emergence of RNA viruses. Journal of virology, 93(4), pp.e01385-18. [<a href="" target="_blank"></a>] Roux, S., Adriaenssens, E.M., Dutilh, B.E., Koonin, E.V., Kropinski, A.M., Krupovic, M., Kuhn, J.H., Lavigne, R., Brister, J.R., Varsani, A. and Amid, C., 2019. Minimum information about an uncultivated virus genome (MIUViG). Nature biotechnology, 37(1), p.29. [<a href="" target="_blank"></a>] Kazlauskas, D., Varsani, A., Koonin, E.V. and Krupovic, M., 2019. Multiple origins of prokaryotic and eukaryotic single-stranded DNA viruses from bacterial and archaeal plasmids. Nature communications, 10(1), p.3425. [<a href="" target="_blank"></a>] Weitz, J.S., Li, G., Gulbudak, H., Cortez, M.H. and Whitaker, R.J., 2019. Viral invasion fitness across a continuum from lysis to latency. Virus evolution, 5(1), p.vez006. [<a href="" target="_blank"></a>] Koskella, B. and Brockhurst, M.A., 2014. Bacteria–phage coevolution as a driver of ecological and evolutionary processes in microbial communities. FEMS microbiology reviews, 38(5), pp.916-931. [<a href="" target="_blank"></a>] Koskella, B., 2019. New approaches to characterizing bacteria–phage interactions in microbial communities and microbiomes. Environmental microbiology reports, 11(1), pp.15-16. [<a href="" target="_blank"></a>] Gulbudak, H. and Weitz, J.S., 2019. Heterogeneous viral strategies promote coexistence in virus-microbe systems. Journal of theoretical biology, 462, pp.65-84. [<a href="" target="_blank"></a>] Adriaenssens, E.M., Wittmann, J., Kuhn, J.H., Turner, D., Sullivan, M.B., Dutilh, B.E., Jang, H.B., van Zyl, L.J., Klumpp, J., Lobocka, M. and Switt, A.I.M., 2018. Taxonomy of prokaryotic viruses: 2017 update from the ICTV Bacterial and Archaeal Viruses Subcommittee. Archives of virology, 163(4), pp.1125-1129. [<a href="" target="_blank"></a>] Trubl, G., Jang, H.B., Roux, S., Emerson, J.B., Solonenko, N., Vik, D.R., Solden, L., Ellenbogen, J., Runyon, A.T., Bolduc, B. and Woodcroft, B.J., 2018. Soil viruses are underexplored players in ecosystem carbon processing. MSystems, 3(5), pp.e00076-18. [<a href="" target="_target"></a>] Emerson J.B., Roux S., Brum J.R., Bolduc B., Woodcroft B.J., Jang H-B., Singleton C.M., Solden L.M., Naas A.E., Boyd J.A., Hodgkins S.B., Wilson R.M., Trubl G., Li C., Frolking S., Pope P.B., Wrighton K.C., Crill P.M., Chanton J.P., Saleska S.R., Tyson G.W., Rich V.I., & Sullivan M.B. Host-linked soil viral ecology along a permafrost thaw gradient. Nature microbiology, 3(8), p.870. [<a href="" target="_blank"></a>] Janjic, A., 2018. The Need for Including Virus Detection Methods in Future Mars Missions. Astrobiology, 18(12), pp.1611-1614. [<a href="" target="_new"></a>] for Signs of Subsurface Life on Mars (Extinct to Extant)*Hosted by the NASA Astrobiology Institute and the Lunar and Planetary Institute* Join us for the final Workshop Without Walls on Searching for Signs of Subsurface Life (Extinct and Extant): Face-to-Face Workshop at the Lunar and Planetary Institute. To join from PC, Mac, Linux, iOS or Android: <a href="" target="_blank"></a> Or iPhone one-tap : US: +1(773)2319226,,1488376168# Or Telephone: Dial(for higher quality, dial a number based on your current location): US: +1(773)2319226 Meeting ID: 148 837 6168 <br /> International numbers available: <a href="" target="_blank"></a> Or an H.323/SIP room system: <br /> - H.323 <br /> (US West)<br /> (US East) <br /> - SIP <br /><> (US West) <br /><> (US East) <br /> <b>In-Person Location:</b> The Lunar and Planetary Institute 3600 Bay Area Boulevard Houston, TX 77058 <a href="" targat="_blank"></a> <b>Agenda (Tentative):</b> Tuesday, August 13, 2019 8:15-8:30 Arrival & Check In, Coffee & Tea 8:30-9:45 Welcome & Meeting Logistics: Penny Boston, Kennda Lynch, and Vlada Stamenkovic 9:45-10:50 Review of Workshop Without Walls Virtual Sessions #1 and #2 and Key Discussion Points (See Section after Agenda) – Part 1 10:50–11:00 Coffee & Snack Break 11:00-12:15 Review of workshop Without Walls Virtual Sessions #1 and #2 and Key Discussion Points Part II. 12:15-1:30 Group Lunch 1:30-2:45 Review of Workshop Without Walls Virtual Sessions #3 and #4 and Key Discussion Points Part I. 2:45-3:00 Coffee & Snack Break 3:00-4:15 Review of Workshop Without Walls Virtual Sessions #3 and #4 and Key Discussion Points Part II 4:15-5:00 Summary of Days Discussion and Prep for Tomorrow 5:30 PM Depart from LPI for Group Dinner (possible group work sessions in the evening: onsite attendees only)! Wednesday, August 14, 2019 8:15-8:30 Arrival to LPI, Coffee & Tea 8:30-9:00 Review of Tuesday Summary & Detail for Agenda 9:00-12:00 Identifying the Big Gaps – What are the key science questions for subsurface life community? 12:00-1:15 Group Lunch 1:15-3:15 Identifying the Big Gaps – What are the key mission & technology goals f for the subsurface life community? 3:15-4:30 Laying the framework – Group discussion to identify and layout key points Decadal Survey White Paper 4:30 – 5:00 Wrap and planning for future virtual meetings and white paper generation 5:00 Adjourn and Departure Also, please join the discussion by joining our dedicated SLACK channel: <a href="" target="_blank"></a>. See you soon. Penny (<a href=""></a>) Kennda (<a href=""></a>) Vlada (<a href=""></a>) <hr /> A significant recommendation to NASA from the 2019 NAS Study entitled “An Astrobiology Strategy for the Search for Life in the Universe” is that: <em>“NASA’s programs and missions should reflect a dedicated focus on research and exploration of subsurface habitability in light of recent advances demonstrating the breadth and diversity of life in Earth’s subsurface, the history and nature of subsurface fluids on Mars, and potential habitats for life on ocean worlds.”</em> As such, the committee also identified key questions that will need to be addressed in the next decade of astrobiology research: • How does subsurface life adapt to extreme environments and energetic spectra? • How do marine and continental subsurface terrestrial communities inform what chemosynthetic or rock-hosted communities on other worlds might look like? • What is the spatial and temporal distribution of potentially habitable environments on Mars, especially in the subsurface? • What are the chemical inventories and physical processes sustaining rock-hosted life on ocean worlds? The goal of this NAI Workshop Without Walls is to develop community recommendations for future missions and exploration strategies for subsurface life on Mars. We intend to address these key questions to ensure that research and exploration of subsurface environments with a focus on life is a well-represented objective in the next decadal survey. The deliverables of this activity will be a series of white papers that will be presented to the community, and then submitted to the decadal committee. *+Dates & Tentative Discussion Topics+* *July 11<sup>th</sup> – Kick off Virtual Meeting, Time: 10:30 AM to 11:30 AM Pacific (1:30-2:30 Eastern)* Subject: Why are we doing this, how are we doing this, and what has been done so far (state of the art). Discussion Leaders: Vlada Stamenkovic, Kennda Lynch, Penny Boston <a href="" target="_blank">Meeting Recording</a> Sign-in Form Link: <a href="" target="_blank"></a> *July 18<sup>th</sup> - 2<sup>nd</sup> Virtual Meeting, Time: 9:30 AM to 10:30 AM Pacific (12:30-1:30 Eastern)* Subject: Extant life, approaches and strategies. Discussion Leaders: Vlada Stamenkovic, Kennda Lynch, Penny Boston <a href="" target="_blank">Meeting Recording</a> Slack Channel: <a href="" target="_blank"></a> Sign-in Form Link: <a href="" target="_blank"></a> *July 23<sup>rd</sup> – Ancillary meeting at the 9<sup>th</sup> International Mars Meeting* Discussion Leaders: Vlada Stamenkovic, Kennda Lynch, Penny Boston Time: 12:00-1:30PM Location: Keck Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA Slack Channel: <a href="" target="_blank"></a> *July 30<sup>th</sup> – 3<sup>rd</sup> Virtual Meeting, Time: 8:00 AM to 9:00 AM Pacific (11:00-12:00 Eastern)* Subject: From extinct and ancient to extant, connections and transitions. Presenters: Shiladitya DasSarma (University of Maryland), Kathy Benison (West Virginia University), Haley Sapers (Caltech) Discussion Leaders: Vlada Stamenkovic, Kennda Lynch, Penny Boston <a href="" target="_blank">Meeting Recording</a> Sign-in Form Link: <a href="" target="_blank"></a> *August 8<sup>th</sup> – 4<sup>th</sup> Virtual Meeting, Time: 8:00 AM to 9:30 AM Pacific (11:00-12:30 Eastern)* Subject: Missions, how do we nail ET? Discussion Leader(s): Vlada Stamenkovic, Kennda Lynch, Penny Boston <a href="" target="_blank">Meeting Recording</a> Sign-in Form Link: <a href="" target="_blank"></a> *August 13<sup>th</sup> & 14<sup>th</sup> – Face-to-Face Workshop at Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston Texas* Please check in so we know you will be attending at: <a href="" target="_blank"></a> Hotel information: Hotel Block reserved at <a href="" target="_blank">Best Western Webster</a> - (281) 338-6000. The group name is Mars Underground. The rate is $60 per night + Tax and the Block Expires on July 31st. Systems Science*Sponsored by the NASA Astrobiology Institute* *Co-organized by Alexis Templeton, Tori Hoehler and Jen Blank* <a href="#agenda">*ARCHIVED RECORDINGS*</a> Compelling terrestrial evidence records active and ancient serpentinization, the process that occurs when ultramafic rocks come into contact with water. This process may have been active on the surface and subsurface of Mars, beneath the surface of icy satellites such as Enceladus and Europa, and beyond. On Earth, these geochemical interactions support distinct microbial ecosystems. The purpose of this workshop is to highlight recent advances in understanding how Serpentinizing Systems function chemically and biologically within our Solar System. For more information, of if you would like to contribute a pop-up talk, please contact the Workshop Organizers: Jen Blank ( or Tori Hoehler ( Pop-up talks, in this context, are 1-5 minute contributed presentations that will be scheduled in the final Workshop agenda to follow the listed speakers. Contributors may use slides (typically 1-3), which they should send to the organizers and to the NAI Technical Support personnel in advance. There is wide latitude for the content of the pop-up talks, but they should follow the theme of the day of the Workshop. Each day of this 3-day workshop will begin with an overview by a Theme Lead, followed by several invited talks (list below) and group discussion. Participants will be encouraged to contribute short, pop-up talks, and the workshop is open to all interested parties. A short white-paper on emerging frontiers in Serpentinzing Systems Science will be crafted from the workshop content. <b id="agenda">*AGENDA*</b> _Day 1_ <a href="">0900 Introduction by Alexis Templeton 0915 Topic overview by Billy Brazelton 0930 Invited Speaker: Susan Lang, <i>Carbon in serpentinite-hosted systems</i> 0955 Invited Speaker: Everett Shock, <i>Geochemical Bioenergetics of Serpentinizing Systems</i></a> 1020 Break <a href="">1035 Invited Speaker: Matt Schrenk, <i>Serpentinization in Continental Settings: Insights into Subsurface Biogeochemistry</i> 1100 Invited Speaker: Beth Orcutt, <i>Life in serpentinizing systems below the seafloor: Opportunities and Challenges</i> 1130 Contributed 'pop-up' talks</a> 1200 End of Day 1 _Day 2_ <a href="">0900 Brief review of Day 1 by Billy Brazelton 0915 Topic overview by Tom McCollom 0930 Invited Speaker: Frieder Klein, <i>Theoretical & experimental constraints on seafloor serpentinization</i> 0955 Invited Speaker: Lisa Mayhew, <i>Tracing iron and mineralogical transformations in low temperature serpentinization reaction systems</i></a> 1020 Break <a href="">1035 Invited Speaker: Sanjoy Som, <i>Biological potential of serpentinizing systems</i> 1100 Invited Speaker: Mike Russell, <i>Serpentinization was the mother of life: Not its sister!</i> 1130 Contributed 'pop-up' talks</a> 1200 End of Day 2 _Day 3_ <a href="">0900 Brief review of Day 1 by Tom McCollom 0915 Topic overview by Steve Vance 0930 Invited Speaker: Christophe Sotin, <i>Evidences for extraterrestrial hydrated silicates</i> 0955 Invited Speaker: Elena Amador, <i>Serpentine as a mineral tracer for past habitable environments on Mars</i></a> 1020 Break <a href="">1035 Invited Speaker: Marc Neveu, <i>Serpentinization on Small Bodies</i> 1100 Invited Speaker: Christophe Glein, <i>The Geochemistry of Enceladus' Ocean toward the End of the Cassini Mission</i> 1130 Contributed 'pop-up' talks</a> 1200 End of Day 3 Biosignatures Workshop Without Walls NExSS & NASA Astrobiology Program Joint Workshop Pre-workshop online activities to commence: June 13, 2016 In-person workshop (and online broadcast): July 27 - 29, 2016, Seattle, WA "Click here": for the main website for this upcoming event. Science Organizing Committee: Daniel Apai (University of Arizona, USA) Gary Blackwood (JPL/ExEP, USA) Shawn Domagal-Goldman (NASA GSFC, USA) Yuka Fujii (ELSI, Japan, and NASA GISS, USA) Lee Grenfell (DLR, ESA, Germany) Nancy Y. Kiang (NASA GISS, USA) Adrian Lenardic (Rice University, USA) Nikole Lewis (STSci, USA) Tim Lyons (University of California, Riverside, USA) Hilairy Hartnett (Arizona State Univ., USA) Bill Moore (Hampton University, USA) Enric Palle (Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Spain) Niki Parenteau (SETI / NASA ARC, USA) Heike Rauer (DLR, ESA, Germany) Karl Stapelfeldt (NASA GSFC/JPL, USA) Sara Walker (Arizona State University, USA) Future exoplanet observations will soon focus on the search for life beyond the Solar System. Biosignatures to be sought are those with global, potentially detectable, impacts on a planet. Biosignatures occur in an environmental context in which geological, atmospheric, and stellar processes and interactions may work to enhance, suppress or mimic these biosignatures. Thus biosignature science is inherently interdisciplinary. Its advance is necessary to inform the design of the next flagship missions that will obtain spectra of habitable extrasolar planets. This Exoplanet Biosignatures Workshop will bring together the astrobiology, exoplanet, and mission concept communities to review, discuss, debate, and advance the science of biosignatures. This process will engage a broad range of experts by merging the interdisciplinary reaches of NExSS, the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI), NASA’s Exoplanet Exploration Program (ExEP), and international partners, such as the European Astrobiology Network Association (EANA) and Japan’s Earth Life Science Institute (ELSI). Between these groups, we will have expertise in astronomy, planetary science, Earth sciences, heliophysics, biology, instrument/mission development, and engineering. The workshop will gather these communities in the pursuit of three goals: 1. State of the Science Review: What are known remotely-observable biosignatures, the processes that produce them, and their known non-biological sources? 2. Advancing the Science of Biosignatures: How can we develop a more comprehensive conceptual framework for identifying additional biosignatures and their possible abiotic mimics? 3. Confidence Standards for Biosignature Observation and Interpretation: What paradigm informed by both scientists and technologists could establish confidence standards for biosignature detection? The 3-day in-person workshop will be coordinated with pre-workshop online activities to summarize the state of the science of exoplanet biosignatures. This review will provide background for the in-person workshop, which will focus on advancing the science of biosignatures, and understanding the technological needs and capabilities for their detection. This information will be exchanged with the Science Technology Definition Teams (STDTs) of upcoming planet-observing missions. The in-person workshop will include plenary talks to set the stage for small group discussions, which will focus addressing key science questions identified by the Science Organizing Committee. The intent is for the workshop to be highly interactive. The meeting agenda will be posted online approximately 1 month prior to the workshop. Outputs from this workshop will include summary reports, which will be circulated to the community for feedback. These reports will be filed with a dedicated Exoplanet Biosignatures Study Analysis Group (SAG 16) of the Exoplanet Exploration Program Analysis Group (ExoPAG). Downstairs: Consequences of Internal Planet Evolution for the Habitability and Detectability of Life on Extrasolar Planets more information, check the main event page for this workshop: "": The chemistry and physics of planetary interiors shapes conditions at their surfaces in ways that profoundly affect habitability and our ability to detect life. The nature and extent of these interactions are not well understood even on Earth. For example, we debate the ways in which internal processes affected the emergence of an O2-rich surface environment on Earth, paving the way for complex life. As a result, we lack a guiding theory from which we can infer the likelihood that O2 will accumulate in the atmospheres of exoplanets with slightly different mass or composition from Earth. The implications for exoplanet habitability and life detection strategies have barely been considered. This workshop will bring together astrobiologists, astronomers, planetary scientists, geochemists, geophysicists, and others needed to develop a working theory about the complex relationships between the surface habitability and internal evolution of Earth and Earth-like worlds. The goal is a community research roadmap and whitepaper aimed at developing a theory of planetary evolution, from solar nebula to evolving world, that will guide the search for inhabited worlds into the next generation. To this end, the workshop will be open to community participation via face-to-face attendance at ASU, and virtual participation as a NASA Workshop Without Walls. Key themes include: • Exoplanetary Observations What can we observe now and in the near future that has bearing on facets of exoplanet geophysics and geochemistry that shape habitability and detectability? • Physics and Chemistry in Planetary Formation How does our understanding of planetary formation inform our ability to predict planetary compositions and hence important geophysical and geochemical parameters? • Atmospheres and Biosignatures What are our longer-term observational aims and how are they affected by surface-interior interactions? • Physical Behavior of Planetary Materials and Planetary Structure What are our limits of understanding of planetary material behaviors and surface tectonics, and how must this understanding extend and evolve to guide the search? • Thermal and Chemical Evolution of Planets What are our limits of understanding of solid planet evolution and how must this understanding extend and evolve to guide the search? Earth-Moon System Workshop<p>Aimed at providing the most up-to-date science on the first billion years&#8217; history of the Earth-Moon system (from solar system formation at 4.567 Ga to the widespread preservation of crustal rocks at 3.5 Ga), this virtual workshop consists of presentations and discussion periods held over a period of three hours for each of two consecutive days, facilitated through an online multi-user video-conferencing system using Adobe Connect to be hosted by the technical facilities of the <span class="caps">NAI</span>. </p> <p>Conveners: Martin Van Kranendonk, University of New South Wales <br />Andy Czaja, University of Cincinnati<br />Nicolle Zellner, Albion College</p> <p><strong><span class="caps">DAY</span> 1, <span class="caps">SESSION</span> 1: <span class="caps">FORMATION</span> OF <span class="caps">THE</span> <span class="caps">SOLAR</span> <span class="caps">SYSTEM</span>, <span class="caps">EARTH</span>, <span class="caps">AND</span> MOON</strong> (20 <span class="caps">MAY</span>, 19:00– 21:00 <span class="caps">UTC</span>)</p> <p><a href="">Opening Remarks</a></p> <p>Talk 1. <a href="">What can the Mg isotope composition of presolar silicate grains tell us about the evolution of interstellar dust prior to and during the early stages of solar system history?</a><br />János Kodolányi, Vrije Universiteit Brussels</p> <p>Talk 2. <a href="">From what is Earth made?</a><br />Rick Carlson, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington</p> <p>Talk 3. <a href="">The first 300 Myr of Earth evolution: Our increasingly high-fidelity timeline</a><br />Lindy Elkins-Tanton, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington</p> <p>Talk 4. <a href="">Improving the understanding of Hf-W and U-Pb chronometry in the Earth-Moon system</a><br />Carsten Munker, Institut für Geologie und Mineralogie, Universität zu Köln</p> <p><a href="">Session 1 Panel Discussion</a></p> <p><strong><span class="caps">DAY</span> 1, <span class="caps">SESSION</span> 2: <span class="caps">CRUSTAL</span> <span class="caps">EVOLUTION</span> IN <span class="caps">THE</span> HADEAN</strong> (20 <span class="caps">MAY</span>, 21:00–23:00 <span class="caps">UTC</span>) </p> <p>Talk 5. <a href="">The Earth&#8217;s Early Crust</a><br />Aaron Cavosie, Department of Geology, University of Puerto Rico<br />John Valley, Department of Geoscience, University of Wisconsin, Madison</p> <p>Talk 6. <a href="">Why aren’t Hadean zircons shocked? A detrital shocked mineral perspective on the Late Heavy Bombardment</a><br />Aaron Cavosie, Department of Geology, University of Puerto Rico</p> <p>Talk 7. <a href="">Constraining the mechanism of Eoarchean crust formation</a><br />Elis Hoffmann, Institut für Geologie und Mineralogie, Universität zu Köln<br />Coauthors: Thorsten Nagel, Carsten Münker, Tomas Næraa, and Minik Rosing</p> <p>Talk 8. <a href="">Is there Hadean crust preserved and what can we tell about its composition?</a><br />Jonathan O’Neil, Ottawa-Carleton Geoscience Centre, University of Ottawa</p> <p><a href="">Session 2 Panel Discussion</a></p> <p><strong><span class="caps">DAY</span> 2, <span class="caps">SESSION</span> 3: EARTH’S <span class="caps">SURFACE</span> <span class="caps">CONDITIONS</span> IN <span class="caps">THE</span> HADEAN</strong> (21 <span class="caps">MAY</span>, 19:00–21:00 <span class="caps">UTC</span>) </p> <p>Talk 9. <a href="">Looking back by looking up: how exoplanets might inform us about surface conditions and abiogenesis on early Earth</a><br />Eric Gaidos, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawai’i at Manoa</p> <p>Talk 10. <a href="">Arguments in favor of an early reducing atmosphere and abundance of organic compounds in the early ocean</a><br />George Shaw, Geology Department, Union College</p> <p>Talk 11. <a href="">Inner Solar System clues to the Hadean surface of the Earth</a><br />Tim Swindle, Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona</p> <p>Talk 12. <a href="">Late heavy bombardment on the Moon</a><br />Marc Norman, Research School of Earth Sciences, The Australian National University</p> <p>Talk 13. <a href="">Impact Delivery of Biomolecules</a><br />Nicolle Zellner, Albion College, Department of Physics<br />Coauthors: Vanessa McCaffrey, Casey Waun, and Erica Earl</p> <p><a href="">Session 3 Panel Discussion</a></p> <p><strong><span class="caps">DAY</span> 2, <span class="caps">SESSION</span> 4: <span class="caps">EVIDENCE</span> OF <span class="caps">EARLY</span> <span class="caps">LIFE</span> ON EARTH</strong> (21 <span class="caps">MAY</span>, 21:00–23:00 <span class="caps">UTC</span>) </p> <p>Talk 14. <a href="">Anoxic geothermal fields and the early life</a><br />Armen Y. Mulkidjanian, University of Osnabrück, Germany, and School of Bioengineering and Bioinformatics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia<br />Coauthors: Andrew Yu. Bychkov, Daria V. Dibrova, Michael Y. Galperin, and Eugene V. Koonin</p> <p>Talk 15. <a href="">Anoxygenic photosynthesis recorded in 3.8 Ga BIFs of the Isua Supracrustal Belt</a><br />Andy Czaja, Departments of Geology and Chemistry, University of Cincinnati</p> <p>Talk 16. <a href="">Stromatolites and other biosignatures at the 3.5 Ga North Pole Dome: Significance to origin of life studies</a><br />Martin Van Kranendonk, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales</p> <p>Talk 17. <a href="">Detecting signs of ancient life and environment at the microbial scale</a><br />Kenneth Williford, Jet Propulsion Laboratory</p> <p>Talk 18. <a href="">Did life start as soon as it could?</a><br />Malcolm Walter, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales</p> <p><a href="">Session 4 Panel Discussion</a></p> Stoichiometry Workshop 2-day workshop intended for people in the astronomy, astrobiology, and related communities to discuss and address several unresolved issues related to the topic of stellar abundances, and its impact on planetary systems. The "Workshop without Walls" format allowed users to join the conference from multiple continents. To watch the recorded talks, simply click on the links in the agenda below: Day 1 9:00 - 9:20 "Welcome / Goals of Workshop (Anbar, Young, Desch)": 9:20 - 9:30 "Introduction 1. Intrinsic Variations (Pagano)": 9:30 - 10:00 "Introduction 2. Discrepancies in Measured Abundances (Hinkel)": 10:00 - 10:30 "Abundance Methodologies and Discussion (Pagano/Hinkel)": Break 10:50 - 11:20 "1. Presentation of Spectroscopy Methods (Pagano/Hinkel)": 11:20 - 12:00 "2. Discussion / Argument on the Abundance Variations between Groups": Break 12:40 - 1:00 "Lightning Talks": 1:00 - 1:20 Discussion 1:20 - 1:40 "Effects of Si & O on Planetary Formation (Brugamyer)": 1:40 - 2:00 "Planetary Compositions (Madhusadhan)": 2:00 - 2:20 "White Dwarfs as Probes of Planetary Composition (Jura)": 2:20 - 2:50 Discussion 2:50 - 3:00 "Closing Thoughts for Day 1 (Young)": Day 2 9:00 - 9:20 "Effect of O & Fe on Stellar Evolution and Habitable Zones (P. Young)": 9:20 - 9:40 "Effects on Planetary Atmospheres (Kopparapu)": 9:40 - 10:00 Discussion 10:00 - 10:20 "Injection of Supernova Material (Scannapieco)": 10:20 - 10:40 "Stable Isotopes and Supernova Injection (E. Young)": 10:40 - 11:00 Discussion 11:00 - 11:20 "Snow Lines in Protoplanetary Disks (Desch)": 11:20 - 11:40 "Heating of Planetary Interiors (Barnes)": 11:40 - 12:00 Discussion Break 12:40 - 1:00 "Planetary Compositions (Riner)": 1:00 - 1:20 "Effects of Elemental Ratios on Planetary Interiors (Shim)": 1:20 - 1:40 Discussion Break 2:00 - 2:50 "Discussion of Future Directions": 2:50 - 3:00 Workshop Summary (Desch, Young, Anbar) Habitability of Mars Workshop history of Mars exploration can be characterized by a series of exciting discoveries that have dramatically overturned previously held beliefs about the planet. Until very recently, the dominantly held position within the scientific community was that while geologic and climatic conditions during Mars’ distant past may have been conducive to the potential origin and evolution of life, conditions on Mars today offer slim hope for life as we know it due to the unlikely existence of near-surface liquid water environments. However, recent results from from NASA’s Phoenix Lander and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter missions suggest that present-day Mars may in fact contain a range of potential liquid water environments associated with perchlorates in near-surface soil layers and seasonally recurring slope lineae. The purpose of this conference is to review observations and theories relating to the current habitability of Mars, and to broadly discuss the implications for future Mars science and exploration. For archived talks, simply click the hyper-linked titles below: Day 1 Introductions Chair: David Paige 8:30am "Conference Welcome": (David Paige – University of California, Los Angeles) 8:40am Welcome from the Dean (Joe Rudnick – Dean of Physical Sciences, UCLA) Current Mars Liquid Water Activity Chair: Alfred McEwen 8:50am Session Introduction 8:55am "Invited Talk: Behavior of Briny Water at the Phoenix Landing Site": (Selby Cull) 9:25am "Thin Liquid Water Films on Present-Day Mars": (Akos Kereszturi) 9:40am "Assessing Habitability: Lessons from the Phoenix Mission": (Carol Stoker) 9:55pm "Laboratory Experiments to Study the Martian Water Vapor Cycle": (Harvey Elliott) 10:10am "Invited Talk: Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL): Flow of Briny Water on Present-Day Mars?": (Alfred McEwen) 10:40am "Spectral Constraints on the Nature and Formation Mechanism of Recurring Slope Lineae": (Lujendra Ojha) 10:55am Mid-morning Break 11:10am "Formation of Recurrent Slope Lineae (RSL) by Freshwater Discharge of Melted Cold Traps": (David Stillman) 11:25am "Mass Balance Constraints on the Sustainability of Mars’ Recurrent Slope Lineae (RSL): Should RSL be an Astrobiology Priority?": (Edwin Kite) 11:40am "Invited Talk: Stability and Activity of Liquid Brines on Present-Day Mars": (Vincent Chevrier) 12:10pm "Present-Day Liquid Water on Mars: Theoretical Expectations, Observational Evidence, and Preferred Locations": (German Martinez) 12:25pm "Temporary Liquid Interfacial Water in the Upper Surface of Mars": (Jean-Pierre de Vera) 12:40pm "Thermodynamic Stability of Liquid Water on Present-Day Mars: Surface Retrievals from the Mars Climate Sounder": (Paul Hayne) 12:55pm Lunch Early MSL Results Chair: Ashwin Vasavada 1:55pm "Invited Talk: The Mars Science Laboratory Mission: Early Results from Gale Crater": (Ashwin Vasavada) Mars Salts and Perchlorates Chair: Selby Cull 2:55pm Session Introduction 3:00pm "Invited Talk: Formation of Perchlorate on Mars": (David Catling) 3:30pm "Invited Talk: The Formation and Stability of Perchlorate Liquid Brines on Mars": (Raina Gough) 4:00pm Afternoon Break 4:15pm "Invited Talk: The Phoenix Mars Lander Wet Chemistry Laboratory: New Results for Perchlorate and its Implications for Water, Organics, and Life": (Sam Kounaves) 4:45pm "Water Uptake of Calcium Perchlorate: An Investigation of Stable Aqueous Solutions Relevant to Mars": (Danielle Nuding) 5:00pm "Character of Mg(ClO4)2 Brines Under Mars Regolith Conditions": (Aaron Zent) 5:15pm "Closing Remarks and Discussion": (David Paige) 5:30pm Day 1 Talks End Day 2 Mars Salts and Perchlorates (cont’d) Chair: Selby Cull 9:00am Session Introduction 9:05am "Invited Talk: Aqueous Extract of a Mars Analogue Regolith": (Wayne Nicholson) 9:35am "Growth of Methanogens in the Presence of Perchlorates: Implications for Life on Mars": (Timothy Kral) 9:50am "Dissimilatory Perchlorate Reduction Linked to Cryptic Aerobic Methane Oxidation: A Possible Scenario for Life on Mars": (Laurence Miller) 10:05am Possibilities for Life on Mars – A Surprising New Microbe (Robert Clark) 10:20am "Freezing and Evaporation Modeling of WCL Solutions Using FREZCHEM Model and GWB Geochemical Work Bench": (Amira Elsenousy) 10:35am "Hygroscopicity and Present Habitability on Mars": (Dirk Schulze-Makuch) 10:50am Mid-morning Break 11:05am "Subsurface Mineral-water Reservoir on Mars" (Alian Wang) 11:20am "Experimental Formation and Persistence of Metastable Aqueous Salt Solutions on Mars": (Jonathan Toner) 11:35am "Regional Prevalence of Fe-Sulfates on Mars": (Suniti Karunatillake) Redox Potentials for Martian Life Chair: Claire Cousins 11:50am Session Introduction 11:55am "Invited Talk: Present-day Uninhabited Habitats on Mars": (Charles Cockell) 12:25pm Lunch 1:40pm "Invited Talk: Plausible Microbial Metabolisms on Mars": (Claire Cousins) 2:10pm "Invited Talk: Energy Sources and Metabolic Rates for Life on Mars": (Chris McKay) 2:40pm "Metabolic Activity of Microorganisms During and After Simulated Mars-like Conditions": (Jean-Pierre de Vera) 2:55pm "Geologic and Energetic Constraints of Anaerobic Methane Oxidation on Mars": (Jeffrey Marlow) 3:10pm Afternoon Break Implications for Mars Planetary Protection Policies Chair: Cassie Conley 3:25pm Session Introduction 3:30pm "Invited Talk: Life Detection and Planetary Protection": (Cassie Conley and Gerhard Kminek) 4:00pm "Invited Talk: Growth and Ultrastructure of Bacteria in 7 mbar, 0° C, and CO2-enriched Anoxic Atmospheres: Implications for the Forward Contamination of Mars (Andrew": Schuerger) 4:30pm Survival of Halophiles at Mars-Simulated Conditions (Alla Bryanskaya) 4:45pm "Invited Talk: Planetary Protection and its Application to JPL Missions": (J. Andy Spry) 5:15pm "Closing Remarks and Discussion": (David Paige) 5:30pm Day 2 Talks End Paleontology and Resurrection Workshop Paleontology and Resurrection: Rewinding the Tape of Life. This three day workshop, "Molecular Paleontology and Resurrection: Rewinding the Tape of Life", will be streamed live over the web. The workshop is open to the worldwide science community. It will be accessible via internet browser, no special software or equipment is required. Questions can be submitted to speakers by chat software. This is a new type of scientific conference with a low carbon footprint, no registration fees, and no hassle of travel. The low barrier to attendance makes it reasonable for scientists outside of this direct line of research, and the non-scientist lay public, to attend what would normally be a highly restricted meeting. Organized by John Peters and Loren Williams, PIs of the NAI’s Montana State University and Georgia Tech teams, a primary goal of the workshop is to foster new interdisciplinary collaborations across the community. The workshop will consist of talks and discussion. Each presentation will allow ample time for questions and answers afterwards. Although talks will be recorded and posted online, we encourage researchers to attend in real time to engage in what we expect will be a lively exchange of ideas during the workshop. Organic Continuum From the ISM to the Early Solar System Workshop by: George Cody (PI, NAI CIW team) and Doug Whittet (PI, NAI RPI team) An NAI "workshop without walls" will be held on March 11 and 12, 2010 to present cutting edge science on subjects spanning the cosmic evolution of molecular organic complexity, from small molecule formation in interstellar clouds, to organic reactions and inventories in protoplanetary disks, to organic inventories in outer and inner solar system primitive bodies. Speakers will be from the current and former NAI nodes with expertise varying from observational astronomy, mathematical and astrochemical modeling, laboratory astrophysics, meteoritics, comets, and more… The goal is to foster new interdisciplinary collaborations across the community. This workshop is also a test of how to best use the advanced virtual communications capabilities of NAI to initiate greater cross-team awareness and dialog on a focused research area well represented across the NAI. What we learn from this will inform the greater community. The workshop is open to all and will be accessible via internet browser—no special software or equipment is required. Please register below to receive connection details. *Workshop topic areas include* *(post-ul) Interstellar Dust and the Organic Inventory of Protostellar Envelopes * Organic Astrochemistry of Protoplanetary Disks * Laboratory Studies of analog ISM and outer Solar System Materials * Organics and Volatiles in Comets * Organic matter in Interplanetary Dust particles. * The Organic Inventory in Asteroids and Primitive Meteorites