NAI

  1. Amino Acids in Chondrites


    Rumuruti (R) chondrites have been recognized as a chondrite group since 1994. The first R chondrite was found in Australia in 1977 and is known as the Carlisle Lakes R chondrite. Above are thin sectio Rumuruti (R) chondrites have been recognized as a chondrite group since 1994. The first R chondrite was found in Australia in 1977 and is known as the Carlisle Lakes R chondrite. Above are thin sections from Carlisle Lakes in plane-polarized light (left) and cross-polarized light (right). Image Credit: NASA JPL

    Many theories about the origins of life involve the delivery of organic molecules to the early Earth by objects from space. Previously, scientists have identified amino acids in carbon-rich meteorites. The abundance and structure of these amino acids can be very different depending on what type of meteorite they come ...

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  1. Calculating the Conductance of Ion Channels


    A molecular dynamics simulations of a transmembrane ion channel. Credit: <a href="https://astrobiology.nasa.gov/nai/reports/annual-reports/2010/arc/origins-of-functional-proteins-and-the-early-evoluti A molecular dynamics simulations of a transmembrane ion channel. Credit: Pohorille et al. 2010

    Scientists supported in part by the Exobiology & Evolutionary Biology element of the NASA Astrobiology Program have used computer simulations and an electrodiffusion model to compute the conduction of simple ion channels.

    Ion channels are pore-like structures in cell membranes that regulate how ions move in and out of cells. In humans, everything from brain function to muscle contraction relies on ion channels. They are also essential in lower organisms, and help protect cells from toxins and antimicrobial agents.

    Ion channels are a basic mechanism found in all living organisms, and studying them could provide astrobiologists with important information about the origin and evolution of life on Earth. In addition, this research could have many applications in fields like biotechnology and medicine.

    The study, “Calculating Conductance of Ion Channels – Linking Molecular Dynamics and Electrophysiology ,” was published in the journal Journal of Physics: Conference Series.

    Source: [Journal of Physics: Conference Series]

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  1. Prebiotic Glycerol in Interstallar Ice


    It is in dense clouds of interstellar dust, gas, and ice like the Keyhole Nebula (above) that new stars and planetary systems are formed. This image of the Keyhole nebula comes from the Hubble Space T It is in dense clouds of interstellar dust, gas, and ice like the Keyhole Nebula (above) that new stars and planetary systems are formed. This image of the Keyhole nebula comes from the Hubble Space Telescope. Credit: NASA and the Hubble Heritage Team (STSci), Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2, STSci-PRC00-06

    Glycerol is a key building block of cell membranes, but scientists have not been able to explain its existence on early Earth. A study supported in part by the Exobiology & Evolutionary Biology element of the NASA Astrobiology Program shows that glycerol might form when ionizing radiation interacts with interstellar ices.

    Following this radiation-induced formation of glycerol, interstellar grains can then be incorporated into the building material of solar systems. From here, the team believes that comets and meteorites could serve to deliver the glycerol to habitable planets like the early Earth.

    The study, “Synthesis of Prebiotic Glycerol in Interstellar Ices,” was published in the journal Angewandte Chemie.

    Source: [Angewandte Chemie]

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  1. Astrobiology Researcher Awarded Paleontological Society Medal


    Derek Briggs awarded Paleontological Society Medal. Credit: YaleNews Derek Briggs awarded Paleontological Society Medal. Credit: YaleNews

    The Paleontological Society named Derek Briggs its 2015 Paleontological Society Medalist for his work in the taphonomy, preservation and evolutionary significance of exceptionally preserved fossil biotas.

    Briggs is a member of the NAI CAN-6 team at MIT, serving as a Co-I for the Foundations of Complex Life research project. He is also a professor of geology and geophysics at Yale University and curator of the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History. His previous honors include the Premio Capo d’Orlando, the Lyell Medal, the Boyle Medal, and Humboldt Research Award.

    More information ...

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  1. Astrobiology at the Cartoon Art Museum


    Astrobiology: The Story of our Search for Life in the Universe. Credit: NASA Astrobiology Program Astrobiology: The Story of our Search for Life in the Universe. Credit: NASA Astrobiology Program

    Today, May 21st, NASA Astrobiology joins The Cartoon Art Museum in downtown San Francisco as they explore the theme of outer space through the medium of comic art. Visitors to this Third Thursday event will be able to pick up copies of the Astrobiology graphic history series by Aaron Gronstal in an exhibit featuring both works of science and science fantasy.

    The event takes place 5:00-8:00PM and is free and open to the public.

    Established in 1984, the Cartoon Art Museum displays and ...

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  1. Ether Compounds Could Work Like DNA on Oily Worlds


    Sunlight glints off of hydrocarbon seas on Saturn’s moon Titan, as seen here in near-infrared light by the Cassini spacecraft. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. Arizona/Univ. Idaho Sunlight glints off of hydrocarbon seas on Saturn’s moon Titan, as seen here in near-infrared light by the Cassini spacecraft. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. Arizona/Univ. Idaho

    Source: [astrobio.net]

    In the search for life beyond Earth, scientists have justifiably focused on water because all biology as we know it requires this fluid. A wild card, however, is whether alternative liquids can also suffice as life-enablers. For example, Saturn’s frigid moon Titan is awash in inky seas of the hydrocarbon methane.

    A new study proposes that molecules called ethers, not used in any genetic molecules on Earth, could ...

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  1. Astrobiology, Art and Critical Thinking


    A eukaryotic cell illustration used to teach students critical thinking skills. Credit: Byung-Ho Kang of the University of Florida A eukaryotic cell illustration used to teach students critical thinking skills. Credit: Byung-Ho Kang of the University of Florida

    Source: [astrobio.net]

    Astrobiology Students Use Art to Develop Critical Thinking Skills

    Consider the process that goes into creating a painting — the attention to detail, the need to interpret the world around you. A scientist goes about his or her work using many of the same skills. This concept is the focus of a recent study that describes the development and implementation of a learning module that introduces astrobiology students to the concepts of creative and scientific inquiry.

    The study, “Developing ...

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  1. A Novel Acidophile Found in Yellowstone


    Octopus Spring in Yellowstone National Park. Credit: David Strong, Penn State University Octopus Spring in Yellowstone National Park. Credit: David Strong, Penn State University

    Researchers supported in part by the Exobiology & Evolutionary Biology element of the NASA Astrobiology Program have isolated a new 'acid-loving’ microorganisms from cyanobacterial microbial mats associated with Octopus Spring in Yellowstone. Chloracidobacterium thermophilum strain B is an anoxygenic photoheterotroph, a member of the phylum Acidobacteria, and moderately thermophilic.

    The paper, “Chloracidobacterium thermophilum gen. nov., sp. nov.: an anoxygenic microaerophilic chlorophotoheterotrophic acidobacterium,” was published in the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology.

    Source: [International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology]

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  1. Peaks and Valleys in Evolution


    Scientists are providing new insights into the role mutations play in the evolution of microbial populations. Researchers examined the relationship between different, beneficial mutations in a population, and how organisms survive when one or more of the mutations are present in a single organism.

    The study, “ The Valley-of-Death: Reciprocal sign epistasis constrains adaptive trajectories in a constant, nutrient limiting environment,” was published in the journal Genomics.

    The research was supported in part by the Exobiology & Evolutionary Biology element of the NASA Astrobiology Program.

    Source: [Genomics]

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  1. Possible Algae Fossils in Mongolia


    Scanning electron microscopy image of a MOWS specimen, which is about 4 mm in total length. Image taken by Phoebe Cohen Scanning electron microscopy image of a MOWS specimen, which is about 4 mm in total length. Image taken by Phoebe Cohen

    Researchers supported in part by the Exobiology & Evolutionary Biology element of the NASA Astrobiology Program have discovered new and unusual fossils in Mongolia. The structures, known as macroscopic organic warty sheets (MOWS), could be the remains of fungal biofilms, or even previously unknown organisms that are now extinct. However, the team believes that multiple lines of evidence indicate that the MOWS are the remnants of ancient marine algae.

    Regardless of the organisms responsible for their production, the discovery of MOWS increases our understanding of biological diversity during a period of Earth’s history known as the Cryogenian glacial interlude (662–635 million years ago). The discovery also shows that macroscopic and morphologically complex multicellular organisms were present in the Cryogenian.

    The study, “Fossils of putative marine algae from the cryogenian glacial interlude of Mongolia,” was published in the journal Palaios.

    Source: [Palaios]

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  1. Nathalie Cabrol: How Mars Might Hold the Secret to the Origin of Life


    Nathalie A. Cabrol diving and sampling in the Licancabur lake at 5,917 m elevation in the volcano’s crater. Photo Credit: The High Lakes Project: The SETI Institute Carl Sagan Center/NASA Ames/ NAI Nathalie A. Cabrol diving and sampling in the Licancabur lake at 5,917 m elevation in the volcano’s crater. Photo Credit: The High Lakes Project: The SETI Institute Carl Sagan Center/NASA Ames/ NAI

    Astrobiologist Nathalie Cabrol recently spoke about her work in remote field sites, including high-altitude lakes in the Andes, at the TED2015 conference. In her talk, Cabrol discusses how this work could help scientists search for signs of life on Mars.

    Cabrol’s TED Talk, “Nathalie Cabrol: How Mars might hold the secret to the origin of life,” is now available to watch from TED.com ...

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  1. Iron-Rich Rocks Could Hold Signs of Life


    A hot spring in Yellowstone National Park. Image Credit: Darren Edwards, http://fettss.arc.nasa.gov/collection/details/yellowstone-1/ A hot spring in Yellowstone National Park. Image Credit: Darren Edwards, http://fettss.arc.nasa.gov/collection/details/yellowstone-1/

    A study of the Yellowstone hot springs has revealed new clues about how organic materials might have been preserved in similar environments on ancient Mars. Researchers found that iron could either preserve or react with organic material in a way that helps form a fossil record.

    The study, supported in part by the Exobiology & Evolutionary Biology element of the NASA Astrobiology Program, was published in the journal Astrobiology.

    Source: [astrobio.net]

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  1. NASA’s NExSS Coalition to Lead Search for Life on Distant Worlds


    NASA is bringing together experts spanning a variety of scientific fields for an unprecedented initiative dedicated to the search for life on planets outside our solar system.

    The Nexus for Exoplanet System Science, or “NExSS”, hopes to better understand the various components of an exoplanet, as well as how the planet stars and neighbor planets interact to support life.

    “This interdisciplinary endeavor connects top research teams and provides a synthesized approach in the search for planets with the greatest potential for signs of life,” says Jim Green, NASA’s Director of Planetary Science. “The hunt for exoplanets is not only ...

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  1. Early Career Astrobiologists Recognized


    Giulio Mariotti (left) and Nicholas Swanson-Hysell (right). Credit: EOS Giulio Mariotti (left) and Nicholas Swanson-Hysell (right). Credit: EOS

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU) has recognized two early career astrobiologists.

    Giulio Mariotti received the 2014 Luna B. Leopold Young Scientist Award for his work on the interactions of coastal hydrodynamics, morphodynamics, and ecological processes. Mariotti was a participant in the 2013 Australian Astrobiology Tour with the The Australian Centre for Astrobiology (ACA), one of the first international partners of the NASA Astrobiology Institute.

    Nicholas Swanson-Hysell was selected as the recipient of the 2014 William Gilbert Award for his work on basalts of the North American Midcontinent Rift. Swanson-Hysell was a ...

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  1. New Library of Congress Astrobiology Chair Announced


    Nathaniel Comfort of the Johns Hopkins Institute of the History of Medicine. Credit: Johns Hopkins Nathaniel Comfort of the Johns Hopkins Institute of the History of Medicine. Credit: Johns Hopkins

    Nathaniel Comfort Announced as Third Chair in Astrobiology at John W. Kluge Center

    Historian of science Nathaniel Comfort will begin on October 1, 2015 as the third Baruch S. Blumberg NASA/Library of Congress Chair in Astrobiology in the John W. Kluge Center at the Library of Congress. He will be in residence for twelve months. As Astrobiology Chair, Comfort will use the Library’s collections to examine the history of the genomic revolution in origin-of-life research.

    The Astrobiology Chair at the Kluge Center is ...

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