NAI

  1. Solar Events Unlikely Triggers for Birth Defects on Earth


    Air showers ensuing from very-high-energy cosmic rays can enter Earth’s atmosphere from multiple directions. Credit: Simon Swordy/NASA Air showers ensuing from very-high-energy cosmic rays can enter Earth’s atmosphere from multiple directions. Credit: Simon Swordy/NASA

    Previously, studies have found that airplane crews at high altitude are exposed to potentially harmful levels of radiation from cosmic rays. But could these cosmic rays pose hazards even at sea level?

    A new NASA-funded investigation has found radiation from solar events is too weak to cause worry at ground level. Results have just been published in the Journal of Geophysical Research and hailed as one of three “Editor’s Choice” publications for the first quarter of 2015 by Space Weather ...

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  1. NASA’s Kepler Mission Discovers Bigger, Older Cousin to Earth


    This artist's concept compares Earth (left) to the new planet, called Kepler-452b, which is about 60 percent larger in diameter. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/T. Pyle This artist's concept compares Earth (left) to the new planet, called Kepler-452b, which is about 60 percent larger in diameter. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/T. Pyle

    NASA’s Kepler mission has confirmed the first near-Earth-size planet in the “habitable zone” around a sun-like star. This discovery and the introduction of 11 other new small habitable zone candidate planets mark another milestone in the journey to finding another “Earth.”

    The newly discovered Kepler-452b is the smallest planet to date discovered orbiting in the habitable zone — the area around a star where liquid water could pool on the surface of an orbiting ...

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  1. Astrobiologists Gather for AbSciCon 2015


    Audiences pack the Grand Hall for the AbSciCon 2015 Regional Heat of the FameLab USA competition. Credit: NASA Astrobiology Audiences pack the Grand Hall for the AbSciCon 2015 Regional Heat of the FameLab USA competition. Credit: NASA Astrobiology

    Astrobiologists gathered in Chicago, Illinois, from June 15-19th for the 2015 Astrobiology Science Conference (AbSciCon). Researchers from a multitude of disciplines, and representing institutions from around the world, used the conference as a forum to report new discoveries, share data, initiate and advance collaborative efforts, plan new projects, and educate the next generation of astrobiologists.

    “AbSciCon reflects the importance of astrobiology in supporting NASA’s current and ongoing missions,” said Mary Voytek, Program Scientist for Astrobiology at NASA.

    Peter Doran, the ...

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  1. Watch AbGradCon 2015 Live


    AbGradCon 2015 webcast (July 20-22) available at http://abgradcon.org/remote.html and http://saganet.org/page/saganlive AbGradCon 2015 webcast (July 20-22) available at http://abgradcon.org/remote.html and http://saganet.org/page/saganlive

    The NAI-sponsored Astrobiology Graduate Conference (AbGradCon) 2015 will be held on July 19-23, 2015 at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

    Those unable to attend in person can still participate via live webcast. The stream will start at 8AM CDT on July 20, 21, and 22 at http://abgradcon.org/remote.html. You can also view the webcast and join in a live chat on the SAGANet site: http://saganet.org/page/saganlive.

    AbGradCon offers a unique opportunity for graduate students and early career ...

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  1. New Horizons Flyby Gives Opportunity to Revisit Speculations About Water, Nature of Pluto


    The "Dynamic Duo" photo of Pluto and Charon taken by the New Horizons spacecraft on July 8, 2015 from 3.7 million miles away. Credit: NASA-JHUAPL-SWRI The "Dynamic Duo" photo of Pluto and Charon taken by the New Horizons spacecraft on July 8, 2015 from 3.7 million miles away. Credit: NASA-JHUAPL-SWRI

    Excitement builds as the public waits for the New Horizons spacecraft to fly by Pluto on July 14, 2015. The flyby will create a landmark in our understanding of Pluto’s atmosphere, geology, and other surface conditions and increase our understanding of what lies further on in the Kuiper Belt.

    Because extremely cold temperatures make present-day volcanic activity and circulation of biogenic elements on the icy surface impossible, neither Pluto nor its moons are ...

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  1. FameLab USA’s AbSciCon Finalist


    The fifth regional heat of FameLab USA’s Season 3 took place at the 2015 Astrobiology Science Conference in Chicago. Credit: NASA Astrobiology The fifth regional heat of FameLab USA’s Season 3 took place at the 2015 Astrobiology Science Conference in Chicago. Credit: NASA Astrobiology

    The fifth regional heat of FameLab USA’s Season 3 took place in Chicago, IL, on June 13-15 in conjunction with the 2015 Astrobiology Science Conference (AbSciCon).

    Fifteen early career scientists participated, and the research represented covered everything from the geological history of Earth to planetary atmospheres and the search for life on planets beyond our solar system! The first round of competition was held in The Field Museum of Chicago.

    Ten of the fifteen participants advanced ...

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  1. Fossils Explain How Life Coped During Snowball Earth


    Ice Ages that covered much of the world in glaciers are thought to have occurred twice during the Cryogenian period, between about 720 and 660 million years ago, and again from 650 to 640 million year Ice Ages that covered much of the world in glaciers are thought to have occurred twice during the Cryogenian period, between about 720 and 660 million years ago, and again from 650 to 640 million years ago. Credit: NSF

    Source: [astrobio.net]

    Researchers have discovered what they think are fossils of a unique red algae species that lived about 650 million years ago during a brief respite between some of the most extreme ice ages the world has ever known. The fossils could speak to how life coped in the aptly named Cryogenian period, when glaciers held most of Earth ...

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  1. Origins, Bottlenecks, and Present-Day Diversity


    An outcrop of fossil bivalve shells from the Miocene. Credit: <a href="http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/news/061101_diversity" target="_blank">UC Berkeley</a> An outcrop of fossil bivalve shells from the Miocene. Credit: UC Berkeley

    Researchers studying living and fossil marine bivalves are providing new insights into how geographic range relates to the evolution of diversity in families of organisms. The study, supported in part by the Exobiology & Evolutionary Biology element of the NASA Astrobiology Program, focuses on how an organism’s position in a morphospace can affect evolution.

    A 'morphospace’ is a way of representing an organism’s possible form, shape or structure. A morphospace has multiple dimensions, and each axis corresponds to a different character of the organism being studied. A single point on the morphospace represents an individual organism in the population.

    The ...

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  1. FameLab at AbSciCon


    FameLab USA Facebook Page FameLab USA Facebook Page

    Season 3, Regional Heat #5 at AbSciCon in Chicago, IL

    The next FameLab USA competition will be held Saturday, June 13th, Sunday, June 14th & Monday, June 15th, during the 2015 Astrobiology Science Conference (AbSciCon).

    For more information, visit: http://famelab-eeb.arc.nasa.gov/competitions/season3-abscicon2015/.

    The preliminary competition round, lunch and the communications workshop will be held at the:

    Chicago Field Museum
    Lecture Hall 2
    1400 South Lake Shore Drive
    Chicago, IL 60605

    The evening competition round and reception will be held at the:

    Hilton Downtown Chicago
    Hilton Downtown Chicago Ballroom
    720 South Michigan Avenue
    Chicago ...

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  1. Molecular Crowding and Early Evolution


    A 3-D view of a model protocell (a primitive cell) approximately 100 nanometers in diameter modeled by a team of researchers at Harvard University. Credit: Janet Iwasa/NSF A 3-D view of a model protocell (a primitive cell) approximately 100 nanometers in diameter modeled by a team of researchers at Harvard University. Credit: Janet Iwasa/NSF

    Protocells are thought to be precursors to life’s first living cells and, in their simplest form, are a self-organized spheres of lipids. New research is providing insight into the environment in which protocells on the early Earth could have formed. The work indicates that protocells may have been crowded by small molecules and polymers. This crowding could have affected reaction rates, changed the structure and activity of water, and even enhanced ...

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  1. Impact Synthesis of RNA Bases


    Artist concept of the early Earth. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center Conceptual Image Lab Artist concept of the early Earth. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center Conceptual Image Lab

    Understanding the origin of bio-organic molecules is a key step in determining how life on Earth began. In 1953, the Miller-Urey experiment showed that amino acids can be produced by electrical discharges in simple gases. Ever since then, scientists have demonstrated that many organic compounds can be formed from non-biological processes.

    Astrobiologists are now trying to determine how biomolecules used by life were selected from the complex mixture of molecules that may have been available on the early Earth. Of particular interest is the ...

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  1. Borucki Awarded 2015 Shaw Prize


    William J. Borucki awarded 2015 Shaw Prize. Credit: Service to American Medals/NASA William J. Borucki awarded 2015 Shaw Prize. Credit: Service to American Medals/NASA

    William J. (Bill) Borucki has been awarded the 2015 Shaw Prize in Astronomy. The announcement of this prestigious award, often referred to as the “Nobel of the East,” was announced yesterday in Hong Kong. The prize honors Bill for “his conceiving and leading the Kepler mission, which greatly advanced knowledge of both extrasolar planetary systems and stellar interiors.” The award will be presented on September 24, and is accompanied by a prize of $1,000,000 (US).

    Bill is in his 53rd year as a devoted civil ...

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  1. Euxinia in the End Triassic Ocean


    A new study shows that changes in the oxygen content at the ocean's surface may have led to an extinction event at the end of the Triassic. Image Credit: <a href="http://www.nasa.gov/centers/jpl/news/ A new study shows that changes in the oxygen content at the ocean's surface may have led to an extinction event at the end of the Triassic. Image Credit: NASA

    Researchers studying ocean chemistry around the end-Triassic extinction (ETE) event have revealed new details about how oxygen availability in ocean water could have disrupted Earth’s nitrogen cycle and the ecological turnover in certain groups of organisms. Their results provide the first evidence for what is known as photic zone euxinia (PZE) associated with this event in Earth’s history. The scientists report that if the conditions they found ...

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  1. Conservation of Energy in Electromagnetic Fields


    Drawing of Faraday disk, the first homopolar generator, invented by British scientist Michael Faraday in 1831. Credit: Émile Alglave & J. Boulard (1884) The Electric Light: Its History, Production, an Drawing of Faraday disk, the first homopolar generator, invented by British scientist Michael Faraday in 1831. Credit: Émile Alglave & J. Boulard (1884) The Electric Light: Its History, Production, and Applications

    Poynting’s theorem deals with the conservation of energy in a electromagnetic field, and is typically applied to stationary circuits or circuit elements. A team of researchers has now applied the theorem to the homopolar generator. Instead of being stationary, the homopolar generator is a conductor moving in a background magnetic field. Their results reveal new information about how magnetic braking arises within Poynting’s theorem.

    The study was supported in part by the Exobiology & Evolutionary Biology element of the NASA Astrobiology Program.

    The paper, “Energy conservation and Poynting’s theorem in ...

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  1. Hydrogen in Interstellar Ice Mantles


    NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE, captured this colorful image of the reflection nebula IRAS 12116-6001. This cloud of interstellar dust cannot be seen directly in visible light, bu NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE, captured this colorful image of the reflection nebula IRAS 12116-6001. This cloud of interstellar dust cannot be seen directly in visible light, but WISE's detectors observed the nebula at infrared wavelengths. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA

    Researchers have developed a numerical model that could provide information about how hydrogen molecules diffuse on the surface of ice mantles on interstellar grains. Ice mantles cover the core of dust grains in dense interstellar clouds, and usually the main component of these mantles is water. According to the scientists, the method could be particularly ...

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